As the nonsustainable power source assets are diminishing, utilization of inexhaustible assets for delivering power is expanding. Solar panels are winding up the more popular day by day. The solar panel retains the vitality from the Sun and is put away in the battery. This vitality can be used when required. Use of the vitality stored in the batteries is given in the below application. Solar panels must absorb solar energy to a maximum amount. This should be possible just if the panels are constantly put towards Sun bearing. So solar panel ought to persistently turn toward the Sun. This article depicts sun tracking solar panel and its working.
Sun Tracking Solar Panel
The hardware and software requirements of the sun tracking solar panel project include 8051 series Microcontroller, Dummy Solar Panel, Stepper Motor, Voltage Regulator, Diodes, Relay driver IC, Transformer, Keil compiler and Languages: Embedded C or Assembly.
Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments, evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families.
Compilers are programs used to convert a High-Level Language to object code. Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.
i.e., the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer).
For example, compilers for DOS platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler then the compiler is a program that translates source code into object code.
- The circuit uses standard power supply comprising of a step-down transformer from 230v to 12v and 4 diodes forming a Bridge Rectifier that delivers pulsating dc which is then filtered by an electrolytic capacitor of about 470microf to 100microF.
- The filtered DC being unregulated IC LM7805 is used to get 5v constant at its pin no 3 irrespective of input DC varying from 9v to 14v.
- The regulated 5volts DC is further filtered by a small electrolytic capacitor of 10 micro f for any noise so generated by the circuit.
- One LED is connected to this 5v point in series with a resistor of 330ohms to the ground, i.e. negative voltage to indicate 5v power supply availability.
A combination of hardware and software which together form a component of a larger machine. An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention and may be required to respond to events in real time.
- Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
- Three-level Program Memory Lock
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
- Watchdog Timer
- Dual Data Pointer
- Fast Programming Time
Relay Driver ULN2003
- ULN is Relay driver application
- The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays.
- It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads.
- The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA.
- The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability.
- The ULN functions as an inverter.
- If the logic at input 1B is high, then the output at its corresponding pin 1C will be low.
- A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps.
- Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors
- Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple “toothed” electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron.
- To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet gives power, which makes the gear’s teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet’s teeth.
- So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated.
Sun Tracking Solar Panel Project Working
The proposed system uses a solar panel connected to a stepper motor to follow the Sun so that highest sunlight is occurring upon the solar panel at any time of the day. This is superior compared to a light detecting method that may not be perfect always for instance throughout cloudy days.
With the future lack of nonrenewable resources, people are allowed to use alternate sources of energy. From all other available resources, solar energy is the most abundant and it’s reasonably easy to change it to electrical energy.
Utilize of the solar panel to alter sun’s energy to electrical energy is very popular, but due to change of the Sun from east to west the present solar panel may be capable to produce optimum energy. This project resolves the problem by an arrangement of the solar panel to follow the Sun.
This tracking system can be achieved by connecting a stepper motor to the solar panel such that the solar panel preserves its face forever vertical of the Sun to produce maximum energy. This is attained by using a programmed microcontroller to send stepped pulses in periodical time intervals for the stepper motor to spin the mounted solar panel as preferred.
The 8051 family microcontroller is used in this project. The stepper motor is ambitious by an interfacing IC as the controller is not competent in handling the power supplies of the stepper motor. The proposed system is provided with a model solar panel which can be used for display purpose only.
Further, this project can be improved by using the Real Time Clock to track the Sun. This assists in keeping the necessary position of the solar panel even if the power has broken up for some time.
Thus, this is all about the sun tracking solar panel. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or to implement any solar-based projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of solar panel?