RFID based Car Parking System is a simple project that offers an efficient car parking management system with the help of RFID Technology. Car parking management in organizations and malls often consists of many tasks like issuing tokens, noting the check-in and checkout time, calculating fare and finally collecting the amount. As the number of vehicles is increasing, the problems faced by a manual parking management system are also increasing. Such problems can be eliminated to some extent by implementing an intelligent parking system where the entry and exit of cars are monitored and payment is made easy with sensor technology. This project deals with an interesting manner of security access based car parking system using an AT89C51 microcontroller and RFID Technology.
RFID Technology Based Paid Car Parking
The hardware requirements of RFID technology based car parking system includes a Power supply, Microcontroller (AT89S52/AT89C51), H-Bridge, DC Motor, Push Buttons, LCD, 1N4007, LED, Resistors & Capacitors, IR LED & Photo Diode.
A combination of hardware and software which together form a component of a larger machine. An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention and may be required to respond to events in real time.
- Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Crystal Frequency 11.0592MHZ
- Three-level Program Memory Lock
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Watchdog Timer
- These solid-state circuits provide power and ground connections to the motor, as did the relay circuits. The high side drivers need to be current “sources” which is what PNP transistors and P-channel FETs are good at.
- The low side drivers need to be current “sinks” which is what NPN transistors and N-channel FETs are good at.
- If you turn on the two upper circuits, the motor resists turning, so you effectively have a breaking mechanism. The same is true if you turn on both of the lower circuits.
- This is because the motor is a generator and when it turns it generates a voltage. If the terminals of the motor are connected (shorted), then the voltage generated counteracts the motors freedom to turn. It is as if you are applying a similar but opposite voltage to the one generated by the motor being turned. Vis-ã-vis, it acts like a break.
LEDs are semiconductor devices are made out of silicon. When current passes through the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light bulbs produce light by heating a metal filament until its white hot. LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching.
A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. In an electric motor, the operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a “North” polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a “South” polarization). Every DC motor has six basic parts — axle, a rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes.
A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.
An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength. Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly used as sensors.
The appearance is the same as a common LED. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not, unlike a common LED. To overcome this problem, the camera on a cell phone can be used. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16×2 and 20×2 displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively. The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source (and communicates directly with the LCD.
RFID Technology based Paid Car Parking Working
RFID technology based car parking uses a microcontroller along with sensing circuits monitoring entry and exit of cars. The car owners are allowed an entry only when their RFID card is swiped. The amount in the card automatically gets reduced with a display to indicate the available number of parking. For loading the amount 2 push buttons are used SW1 for Rs500 and SW2 for 300. An example is shown for 2 cards but it can be extended to many numbers.
An H-bridge arrangement operates the entry and exit boom motors operating clockwise and anticlockwise for opening and closing. A buzzer sound comes while the card is swiped. Upon every entry of a car, the parking availability gets reduced by one number while every exit the number increases. A standard power supply is used. An LCD displays the status. A switch is used in place of RFID for minimizing the project cost.
Thus, this is all about RFID technology based paid car parking system and its working. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or to implement any RFID based projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of RFID technology?