Landmines hid under the earth origins risk to the lives and influence the economy of the nation. Discovery and eliminating of these by hand is a dangerous task, which may occasionally cause accidents. In such situations, robots help in the discovery of the landmines and also any other metals present in the ground. This article gives an overview of the “Metal Detector Robot” that uses RF technology. The proposed system comprises a transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuit. The Tx circuit transmits the commands necessary to work the robot. The Rx circuit receives the commands through RF and moves the robot according to the received commands. A “metal detector” is interfaced to the microcontroller in the receiver end. Thus, when any metal is noticed the robot ends there and generates a buzzer sound.
Metal Detector Robotic Vehicle
Here is a war field land rover that alerts on sensing planted land mine ahead controlled remotely using primarily the RF mode. The RF remote control has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters with proper antennae) besides being unidirectional. On the other hand, an IR remote would function over a limited range of about 5 meters and the remote transmitter has to be oriented towards the receiver module quite precisely.
However, the cost involved in using RF modules is much higher than of IR components and as such, we have included the replacement alternative of RF modules with their IR counterparts for using the IR remote control.
The hardware and software requirements of the metal detector robotic vehicle include 8051 series Microcontroller, RF Tx-Rx, LED, Crystal, Resistors, Capacitors, Diodes, Voltage Regulators, Metal Detector, DC Motors, Motor Driver, Encoder, Decoder, Push Buttons, Software Requirements, Keil compiler and Language: Embedded C or Assembly.
8051 Series Microcontroller
- It is a smaller computer and has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports. The main features of this microcontroller include the following
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
RF Remote Control
The circuit uses HT 12E, HT 12D encoder and decoder.433MHz ASK transmitter and receiver is used for the remote control. The features of RF remote control include the following
- Range in open space (Standard Conditions)-100 Meters
- RX Receiver Frequency-433 MHz
- RX Typical Sensitivity-105 Dbm
- RX Supply Current-3.5 mA
- RX IF Frequency-1MHz
- Low Power Consumption
- Easy For Application
- RX Operating Voltage – 5V
- TX Frequency Range -433.92 MHz
- TX Supply Voltage -3V ~ 6V
- TX Out Put Power -4 ~ 12 dBm
RF Encoder & Decoder
The HT 12E Encoder ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for Remote Control system applications. They are capable of Encoding 12 bit of information which consists of N address bits and 12-N data bits. The HT 12D ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. This ICs are paired with each other. For proper operation, a pair of encoder or decoder with the same no.of address and data format should be selected. The Decoder receives the serial address and data from its corresponding decoder, transmitted by a carrier using an RF transmission medium and gives output to the output pins after processing the data.
For proper operation, the pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of address and data format should be selected. The Decoder receives the serial address and data from its corresponding decoder, transmitted by a carrier using an RF transmission medium and gives output to the output pins after processing the data.
Motor Driver l293D
L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.
Operation of Motor Driver
- L293D has 2-set of arrangements where one set has input-1, input-2, output-1 and output-2 and another set has input-3, input-4, output-3 and output-4, according to block diagram if pin no-2 & 7 are high then pin no-3 & 6 are also high.
- If enable-1 and pin number-2 are high leaving pin number-7 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable-2 and pin number-10 are high leaving pin number-15 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable-1 and pin number 2 are low leaving pin number-7 as high then the motor rotates in reverse direction.
- If enable-2 and pin number-15 are high leaving pin number-10 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
The operation of metal detectors is based upon the principles of electromagnetic induction. The single-coil detector is the one used in a real metal detector.A pulsing current is applied to the coil, which then induces a magnetic field. When the magnetic field of the coil moves across metal, such as the coin, the field induces eddy currents in the coin. The eddy currents induce their own magnetic field, which generates an opposite current in the coil, which induces a signal indicating the presence of metal.
The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle that can sense metals ahead of it on its path similar to sensing landmines. The robot is controlled by a remote using RF technology.It consists of a metal detector circuit interfaced to the control unit that alarms the user behind it about a suspected landmine ahead. An 8051 series of the microcontroller is used for the desired operation.
At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end, two motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where they are used for the movement of the vehicle. The RF transmitter acts as an RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with a proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work.
A metal detector circuit is mounted on the robot body and its operation is carried out automatically on sensing any metal underneath. As soon as the robot senses this metal it generates an alarm sound. This is to alert the operator of a possible metal (eg: landmine) ahead on its path. Further the project can be enhanced by mounting a wireless camera on the robot so that the operator can control the movement of the robot remotely by watching it on a screen.
Keil an Arms Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments, evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families.Compilers are programs used to convert a High-Level Language to object code.
Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors. i.e the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer). For example compilers for Dos platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler then the compiler is a program that translates source code into object code.
Applications of Metal Detector Robotic Vehicle
This line following robot can also be modified to a walking robot on any surface by using only one motor with homemade fixtures as per the detailed instructions give.
Similarly, the same walking robot can be attached with special magnetic material as per instructions to climb a wall of any vertical metallic surface says a refrigerator body.
Thus, from the above information finally, we can conclude that the metal detector robot can be used to find the landmine when the robot moves on the earth.The main aim of this project is to sense and remove the landmines and also metals ahead of it in a short span of time. Further, this system can be enhanced by mounting a wireless camera on the robot, and the operator can control the robot’s movement simply by imaging it on a screen.Furthermore, any queries regarding this or to implement robotic projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of metal detector robot?
Further, this system can be enhanced by mounting a wireless camera on the robot, and the operator can control the robot’s movement simply by imaging it on a screen.Furthermore, any queries regarding this or to implement robotic projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of metal detector robot?