The automatic door opening systems are used in commercial buildings, shopping malls, theaters, etc. These systems are used to open and close the door when a person comes near to the entry of the door and close it after the person entered into the door. This kind of system can be built by using various kinds of sensors such as PIR sensors, Radar sensors, Laser sensors,and Infrared sensors etc. This project uses a PIR sensor to sense the infrared (IR) energy generated by the human body.When somebody come close to the door, the IR energy sensed by the sensor transforms and triggers the sensor to open and close the door routinely. Further, the indication sent to microcontroller to control the door.
Human Body Temperature Sensed Automatic Door Opening System
The main goal of this electronic project kit is to design the automatic door opening system by sensing the human body temperature.This project defines the design of a controller for the door.When any movement is detected near the door, then the door opens. A passive infrared sensor senses the movement and sends a sign to the microcontroller which opens the door for a specific amount of time based on the program.Intrude signals are used to stop power to the DC motor in the incident of the locked rotor condition.
The hardware requirements of the human body temperature sensed automatic door opening system include a power supply, microcontroller (at89s52/at89c51),motor driver(l293d), DC motor, push button, PIR, BC547, LED, 1N4007, resistorsand capacitors
- It is a smaller computer
- Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports
Features of AT89S51/52
- Well-matched with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K-bytes of ISP (In-System Programmable) flash memory
- Strength: 10,000 Write or Erase Cycles
- Operating Range is 4.0V to 5.5V
- Fully Static Operation is 0 Hz-33 MHz
- Internal RAM is 256 x 8-bit
- 32-Programmable I/O Lines
- 16-bit Timer or Counters-3
- Interrupt Sources-8
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Dual Data Pointer
- Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
- Watchdog Timer
Motor Driver (L293D)
- Wide supply-voltage range: 4.5V to 36V
- Separate input- logic supply
- Internal ESD protection
- Thermal shutdown
- High-Noise-Immunity input
- Functional Replacements for SGS L293 and SGS L293D
- Output current 1A per channel (600 mA for L293D)
- Peak output current 2 A per channel (1.2 A for L293D)
- Output clamp diodes for Inductive Transient suppression(L293D)
- The H-bridge motor driver L293D is a dual integrated circuit (IC).
- In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven instantaneously, both in forward& reverse direction.
- The operations of two motors can be measured by input logic at pins 2, 7, 10 & 15.
- When the input logic is 00 or 11 that will stop the equivalent motor. Logic 01 &10 will make the motor to rotate in clockwise & anticlockwise directions, respectively.
- Enable pins 1&9 must be high for motors to start working. When an enable i/p is high, the related driver gets enabled.
- A DC motor runs on direct current electricity, and the working of any kind of motor depends on simple electromagnetism.
- A simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red signifies a magnet or winding with a “North” division, while green signifies a magnet or winding with a “South” division).
- Every DC motor has 6-basic parts, namely axle, rotor, commutator, stator,field magnet(s), and also brushes.
BC547 (NPN –Transistor)
- This transistor is an NPN epitaxial silicon transistor.
- It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
- The DC current gain of the device can be defined as a fraction of two currents (Ic/Ib) and is denoted with the symbol of hfe or now Beta, (β).
- The current gain from the emitter(E) to the collector(C) terminal, Ic/Ie is called Alpha, (α), and is a function of the transistor itself
- The term PIR stands for the Passive Infra-Red sensor is a pyroelectric device that senses motion by calculating changes in the infrared (IR) levels emitted by nearby objects. This motion can be noticed by checking for a high signal on a single I/O pin.
- Apparent motion is noticed when an IR source with one temperature, like a human, passes in front of an IR source with another temperature, like a wall
- A single bit output
- Small size makes it easy to conceal
- Well-suited with all parallax microcontrollers
Working of Project
- The output from the PIR is amplified to a transistor BC547, the output of which at the collector terminal is connected to pin-1 of the microcontroller.
- While any moving human body is sensed by the PIR sensor, it develops logic high at its o/p which gets reversed by the transistor used to develop a logic low at pin-1 of microcontroller.
- The program is so returned that it delivers appropriate input to the driver IC L293D as explained above, to run the motor as it indicate if the motor rotates one direction and vice versa indicating door open and close.
- Keilis an ARM Company makes C-compilers, real-time kernels,macro assemblers, debuggers,integrated environments, simulators,evaluation boards, and emulators.
- ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, 251,XC16x/C16x/ST10, and also 8051 MCU families.
- Compilers are nothing but programs which are used to convert a high level language to object code. Desktop compilers generate an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.
- i.e the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer).
- For example, compilers for DOS platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler then compiler is a program that translates source code into object code.
Thus, this is all about human body temperature sensed automatic door opening system and its working.We believe that you have got a better understanding of this project. Furthermore, any queries about this or to implement automatic door opening and closing project, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of a PIR motion sensor?