At present, almost of the public having their own vehicle, burglary is happening in insecurity places like vehicle parking, driving, etc. The protection of vehicles is very necessary for public transportation. The vehicle is tracing and security system fixed in the vehicle to trace the place and locking the vehicles engine motor. The location of the vehicle recognized using Global Positioning system and Global system mobile communication. These two systems continually watch a moving vehicle and report the position on request. When the burglary recognized, the responsible person sends an SMS to the microcontroller, then microcontroller issue the control signals to halt the engine motor. Authorized person needs to send the PIN to controller to restart the vehicle and open the door. This is more protected, trustworthy and low-cost.
GSM- GPS Based Vehicle Tracking System
The contents of this project include project overview, block diagram, power supply, microcontroller, GPS-GSM modules, LCD, IC 4052 MUX, software requirements, working of the project, advantages, applications, future scope and conclusion.
The project is designed to find out the exact location of any vehicle, and intimate the position of the concerned authority about through an SMS and Also Displays the same on the LCD. This system includes a GPS modem which retrieves the location of a vehicle in terms of its longitude and latitude.
Block Diagram of Vehicle Tracking System
The hardware and software requirements of a GSM- GPS based Vehicle Tracking system include micro controller unit (at89c52), max232, GSM module, resistors, capacitors, voltage regulator, db9 connector, GPS, LCD display, Keil compiler and language: embedded c.
The 230V AC supply is a first step down to 12V AC using a step down transformer.This is then converted to the DC using bridge rectifier.The AC ripples are filtered out by using a capacitor and given to the input pin of the voltage regulator 7805.At the output pin of this regulator, we get a constant 5V DC which is used for MC and other ICs in this project.
- It is a smaller computer
- Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports.
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- The term GSM usually means the GSM standard and protocols in the frequency spectrum around 900MHz.
- MS- Mobile Station: The MS is the physical equipment used by a subscriber,most often a normal handheld cellular telephone.
- BTS- Base Transceiver Station: The BTS comprise the radio transmission and reception devices, and also manage the signal processing related to the air interface.
- GPS Module continuously receives the data from the satellite and transmits correspondingly to the UART of the microcontroller.
- The GPS signal is applied to the antenna input of module, and a complete serial data message with position, velocity and time information is presented at the serial interface.
- The Valid data Received will be in the format of RMC….latitude and longitude positions.
- A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone.
- From the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.
- When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the computer to use the GSM modem to communicate over the mobile network.
- While these GSM modems are most frequently used to provide mobile internet connectivity, many of them can also be used for sending and receiving SMS and MMS messages.
- The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits.
- The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals.
- When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert, it changes a TTL Logic 0 to between +3 and +15V, and changes TTL Logic 1 to between -3 to -15V, and vice versa for converting from RS232 to TTL.
The DB9 (originally DE-9) connector is an analog 9-pin plug of the D-Sub miniature connector family.
Liquid Crystal Display
- Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16×2 and 20×4 displays.
- This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively.
- The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source (and communicates directly with the LCD.
- If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data lines(3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus).
- The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RWEN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data)RS=Register Select.
- When RS=0; data is treated as a command & When RS=1; data being sent is text data.R/W=Read/Write, When RW=0; the data written to the LCD & When RW=0; the data reading to the LCD.
CD 4052 Multiplexer IC
- The CD4051BC, CD4052BC, and CD4053BC series are analog multiplexers/de multiplexers which are digitally controlled analog switches have low “ON” impedance and very low “OFF” leakage currents.
- CD4052 is a differential 4-channel multiplexer having two binary control inputs, A and B, and an inhibit input.
- As 8051 Series Has only one set of the UART(TX and RX) it is essential to use a multiplexer.
- By using 4052 we can Switch the TX and RX pins of microcontroller to be connected to GSM and GPS.
- The data gets Received From The GPS Module by the microcontroller and Simultaneously Transmits the same through GSM Modem
Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments, evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families.Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code.
Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.i.e the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer). For example, compilers for Dos platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler then compiler is a program that translates source code into object code.
Project Description of Vehicle Tracking System
The project GSM- GPS based vehicle tracking is intended to find out the exact place of any vehicle and inform the position of the concerned person about through an SMS.
This project is designed with a GPS modem which tracks the location of a car in terms of its longitude and latitude. This information is fed to the microcontroller which is connected with a GSM module. Microcontroller saves the location details and sends it to the worried authority in the form of an SMS over GSM on periodical intervals so fixed by the operatorAn LCD display is connected to the microcontroller for overpass the information received before being sent over GSM.
Thus, the proposed system can be highly useful for various transport companies to keep trace their vehicles. This system can be enhanced in the future by designing an arrangement to halt the vehicle ignition by the holder remotely by sending an SMS in robbery situations. Furthermore, any queries regarding this or to implement GPS and GSM based projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of GPS and GSM modules?