RFID based Car Parking System is a simple project that offers an efficient car parking management system with the help of RFID Technology. Car parking management in organizations and malls often consists of many tasks like issuing tokens, noting the check-in and checkout time, calculating fare and finally collecting the amount. As the number of vehicles is increasing, the problems faced by a manual parking management system are also increasing. Such problems can be eliminated to some extent by implementing an intelligent parking system where the entry and exit of cars are monitored and payment is made easy with sensor technology. This project deals with an interesting manner of security access based car parking system using an AT89C51 microcontroller and RFID Technology.
The Bluetooth technology was implemented in the year 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattison. They were working in a mobile company called “Ericsson” which is located in Sweden. After this, five corporations came forward and combined to form the Bluetooth special interest group. Then they implemented the Bluetooth protocol design version 1.0 in the year 1999. It permitted to progress applications and communicating services over the interoperable radio modules and also data communication protocols. It was intended to give the information on the conditions, competencies and their architectures, a number of usage modules were recognized by the Bluetooth SIG.
What is a Bluetooth Device?
A Bluetooth is a high-speed, low powered wireless device that is intended to connect mobile phones or any other movable equipment together. It is an IEEE 802.15.1 specification for the use of low-power radio communications to connect various network devices, namely computers, mobile phones and also other network devices over small distances without using wires. The transmission of wireless signals can be done typically up to 10meters with Bluetooth over small distances.
It is attained by low-cost embedded transceivers into the devices. It supports on the 2.45GHz frequency band and can support up to 721KBps along with 3-voice channels. This frequency band has been fixed aside by international contract for the use of scientific, industrial, medical devices (ISM) and rd-compatible with 1.0 devices.Simultaneously, Bluetooth device can connect up to eight devices and each device gives a unique 48-bit address from the IEEE 802 standard with the point to point connections or multipoint which are being made.
How to Connect a Bluetooth with Other Devices
The following steps involve to knowing how to connect a Bluetooth with other devices
Turn Bluetooth ON/OFF
- Open the device’s settings
- Tap Bluetooth and ON/OFF the switch
- At the top of the mobile screen, a Bluetooth symbol shows when Bluetooth is switched ON
Note: To conserve battery, switch off Bluetooth option when you’re not using it.
Connect Bluetooth Device
To pair with a Bluetooth device, first switch ON your gadget’s Bluetooth. Before you can pair your device with any other Bluetooth enabled gadget, you must connect them. After you have connected the devices, in the future, you can automatically connect the devices when they are in the range of one another.
Unpair, or Change a Bluetooth Device Name
- If your Bluetooth devices have several connections, you can choose which connection to use.
- Your Bluetooth enabled gadget has a Bluetooth name that new devices see when you pair them via Bluetooth. You can change your Bluetooth device’s name.
- Open your Bluetooth enabled gadgets Settings
- Tap Bluetooth and Make sure Bluetooth is turned on.
- Next, to the connected device, you’d like to change, tap Settings
- On the mobile screen that opens, you can change the name of the device and pick profiles, or forget the device.
- Tap Rename the Bluetooth enabled device
- Enter a new name for your device and Tap Rename.
Why Bluetooth Connecting Fail
Bluetooth device mainly depends on both software and hardware to function properly. So if your gadgets can’t speak a common Bluetooth language, they won’t be able to pair.
In general, these devices support the standard Bluetooth 4.2, declared last year, should still be able to connect with devices using, say, the early Bluetooth 2.1, launched back in the year 2007.
The exceptions are devices that use a low energy version named Bluetooth Smart, which works on a variety protocol than older. Bluetooth enabled devices are not backward compatible and won’t pair with older devices that support Classic Bluetooth.
Bluetooth enabled devices that commonly use Bluetooth Smart comprise personal health gadgets like heart rate monitors, fitness bands, etc. These devices will only connect with a smartphone that also uses Bluetooth Smart or Bluetooth Smart Ready.
The devices also available with particular Bluetooth profiles. If Bluetooth is the mutual language for connecting devices, you can think of a profile as a dialect connected with a certain use. For example, you probably aren’t going to be capable of connecting a camera and a mouse because a camera doesn’t support the Human Interface Device Profile. But if both a mobile and a wireless headset support the Hands-Free Profile, you should be able to connect them.
However, if the connecting failure is a matter of consumer error, there are some steps you can fix Bluetooth pairing problems
- Make sure Bluetooth is Activated or Not
- Switch to Discoverable Mode.
- Delete a paired device from a phone and search for it
- Make sure the pairing devices are in near enough closeness to one another.
- Decide which combining process your device employs
- Charge up both pairing devices
- Stay away from the WiFi router
- Update the firmware of the hardware
- Power down likely interferes
- Get away from a 3.0 USB port
Advantages of Bluetooth Technology
- It eliminates radio interference problem by using a technique, namely “Speed Frequency Hopping”. This method employs 79-channels of the specific frequency band, with every device, retrieving the channel for only 625 microseconds, i.e. the Bluetooth device must toggle between transmitting & receiving data from one time period to another. This indicates the transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second, meaning that additional devices can make full use of an incomplete slice of the radio spectrum. This ensures that the interference won’t take place as each transmitter (TX) will be on different frequencies.
- The power consumption of the chip (consisting of the transceiver) is low, at about 0.3mW, which makes it possible for least use of battery life.
It assurances security at the bit level. The verification is controlled using a 128bit key.
It is possible to use a Bluetooth device for both transferring and verbal communication as this device can support data channels of up to 3 comparable voice channels.
It disables the limits of the line of sight and one-to-one communication as in another mode of wireless communications such as infrared.
Applications of Bluetooth
The applications of Bluetooth device include the following
- Cordless Desktop
- Ultimate headset
- Automatic synchronization
- Multimedia Transfer
This article gives the information about how to connect a Bluetooth with other devices, and applications. We hope that the above information given in this article is helpful in providing some good insights and understanding of the project. Furthermore, if you have any queries regarding this article or to implement Bluetooth based projects, you can comment in the below section. Here is a question for you – What are the different versions of Bluetooth?
Day by day, as the technology is rapidly progressing that affect the human daily lives more flexible, especially in controlling home appliances. Electrical installations are the heart of every building, thus intelligent building control absolutely ensures the safety and efficient control and finally saves the power consumption and manpower. Home automation system does the operations such as lighting control & regulation, regulating heating, equipment’s ventilation and air con equipment, load, and energy management, audio or video systems, security and monitoring, human machine interfaces and other control tasks.
RF Based Home Automation System
To develop a home automation system with an RF controlled remote, houses are also getting smarter. As technology is advancing so houses are also getting smarter.Modern houses are gradually shifting from conventional switches to a centralized control system, involving radio frequency controlled switches.
At present, conventional wall switches located in different parts of the house make it difficult for the operator to go near them to operate.In order to complete this, an RF remote is interfaced to the microcontroller on the TX side which sends commands to the receiver where different loads are connected. By operating the particular remote switch on the TX, the loads can be switched ON/OFF remotely through wireless technology.
This circuit uses an RF module to make a wireless remote, which could be used to drive an o/p from a distance place. As the name suggests, RF module uses radio frequency to send signals, which are transmitted at a specific frequency & a baud rate.
Hardware and Software Requirements
The hardware and software requirements of RF-based home automation system include Series Microcontroller, Transformer, Opto-isolator, TRIAC, Voltage Regulator, Crystal Diodes, Resistors, Capacitors, Lamps, RF modules, Push Buttons, Keil compiler, and Languages: Embedded C or Assembly.
RF Transmitter and Receiver
- Normally, RF modules are divided into three groups, RF TX module, RF receiver module, and RF transceiver module.
- 433MHz, ASK transmitter and receiver are used for the remote control.
Features of RF
The main features of RF transmitter include the following
- Range in standard conditions is 100 meters
- RX frequency-433MHz
- Typical sensitivity-105Dbm
- Supply current of RX-3.5 mA
- IF frequency of RX-1MHz
- Low power consumption
- Easy for Application
- Operating voltage of RX-5V
- Frequency range of TX-433.92MHz
- Supply voltage of TX- 3V to 6VO/p of TX- 4 to 12 dBm
- Encoder HT12E IC gets parallel data in the form of address and control bits
- The control signals from remote switches along with 8-bits constitute a set of 12 parallel signals
- The encoder converts the parallel inputs into a serial set of signals.
- These signals are serially transmitted through RF to the response point.
- Transmission is permitted by providing ground to pin-14 which is active low.
- In the receiver circuit, we use an RF module to get the information and decoded by the decoder.
- Decoder delivers the data into 4-bit and we use the further control circuit to switch ON/OFF.
- The decoder is used after the RF receiver to decode the serial format and regain the original signals as o/ps.
- This o/ ps can be observed on equivalent LEDs.
- Opto-coupler MOC3061 or MOC3063 a LED, SCR sort combination.
- It is a 6-pin IC.
- Additionally, while using this IC with a microcontroller and also LED can be connected in series with IC LED to specify when the high is given from microcontroller so that we can know that flow of current is in internal LED of the opto-IC.
- When the logic high is given, then the current flow through LED from pin 1 to 2
- So in this process, LED falls on SCR to cause pins 4 and 6 to close only at the zero cross of the supply voltage.
BC547 NPN Transistor
- The transistor (BC547) is an NPN epitaxial silicon transistor
- This transistor is used in general purpose switching & amplification BC847 or BC547 series 45V, 100mA NPN general purpose transistors.
- The ratio of two currents ‘Ic’ and ‘Ib’ is called the C current gain of the device and is given the symbol of hfe or beta.
- The current gain from the Emitter (E) to the collector terminal is called alpha.
The main goal of this project is to design a home automation system with an RF controlled remote. As day by day technology is advancing and houses are getting smarter. These houses are progressively changing from conventional switches to the integrated control system, including RF controlled switches.
Presently, conventional wall switches located in various parts of the house make it difficult for the user to go nearby them to work. Even more, it becomes more difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do so. The proposed system offers a simple solution with RF technology.
In order to get this, an RF remote is connected to the microcontroller on the TX side which sends ON/OFF signals to the RX where different loads are connected. By operating the particular remote switch on the TX, the loads can be switched ON/OFF remotely through wireless technology.
The microcontroller used here is 8051 family, the different loads are connected to the microcontroller using TRIACs and Opto-isolators.
Applications of RF-Based Home Automation System
The applications of RF-based home automation system include the following
- Burglar alarm, smoke alarm, fire alarm, car alarm, security system, etc.
- Car door and garage door controllers
- Cordless telephone
- Other remote control systems
- Wireless security systems
- Car alarm systems
- Remote controls
- Sensor reporting
Thus, this is all about RF based home automation system. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or to implement any home automation projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, What are the applications of home automation system?
The Max-232 IC is started by the maxim integrated products in 1987. It is an integrated circuit which converts the signals from the RS232 serial port to the proper signal which are used in the TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 can convert the signals like RX, TX, CTS, and RTS and it is a dual driver/receiver. The driver increases the output voltage levels of TIA232 from a 5 volt supply to 7.5 volts by using the external capacitor and on chip charge pumps. The receiver reduces the input levels of the TIA232 from 25 volts to the standard voltage level, i.e. 5volts of TTL levels and there is a threshold of 1.3 volts and hysteresis of 0.5 volts for the receiver. Further the max232 IC is extended by the four receivers and transmitters simultaneously with eight receivers and transmitters which are MAX238 and MAX248 and there are many combinations of receivers and transmitters.
Generally, an RF module is a small size electronic device, that is used to transmit or receive radio signals between two devices. The main application of RF module is an embedded system to communicate with another device wirelessly. This communication may be accomplished through radio frequency communication. For various applications the medium of choice is radio frequency since it does not need line of sight.The applications of RF modules mainly involve in low volume and medium volume products for consumer applications like wireless alarm systems, garage door openers, smart sensor applications, wireless home automation systems and industrial remote controls. This article discusses about block diagram of RF transceiver module and its applications.
Bluetooth, the curiously named communication standard has taken the world by storm. Now a given feature on everything from smartphones to in-vehicle entertainment systems, Bluetooth has an interesting history and working, proving how versatile this communication standard is. It is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), a non-profit, non stock company which mainly deals with setting standards, licensing and advancing Bluetooth capabilities. Before this it was standardized by the IEEE as IEEE 802.15.1, but since the SIG, that convention is not used. Here’s more about how the wireless communication standard came to be, why it is named so, how it has grown over the years and where it is used! [Read more…]