Nowadays, farmers in the agriculture field facing a lot of problems in pouring the water into their field to keep their crops green especially in summer season. It’s because they don’t have a proper idea about the power availability. Even it is available, they have to wait until the field is properly watered. Thus, this procedure checks them to stop doing other acts. But, there is a solution, namely “solar powered auto irrigation system”.In the trial of solar power based irrigation system, PV cells are used to produce electricity, that energy is stored in rechargeable batteries.The energy which is produced from the batteries is used for the system operation. A water pump is used to pump the water from a boor well to a water storage tank. This article discusses solar powered irrigation system using solar energy.
To understand the roots of SCADA, we must know the industrial organization’s problems which are trying to solve. Before the SCADA concept was introduced in the mid-20th century, several industrial floors, plants, and remote sites depend on personnel to physically control and monitor apparatus through analog dials and push buttons. As industries began to scale out in size, solutions were required for equipment controlling over long distances. The group of Industries has started to use relays and timers to offer some level of supervisory control without taking to send people to remote sites to network with each device.
While timers and relays solved several problems by giving narrow automation functionality, more problems began to rise as organizations sustained to scale out. The reconfiguration of Relays and timers were difficult. A more effective and fully automatic control system and checking were needed. The term “SCADA” was invented in the early 1970s, and the growth of microprocessors and PLCs during that period increased enterprises’ capability to monitor & control automated processes more than ever before.
This article is a collection of electronics kits for beginners, which can be used as simple projects for engineering students. The following projects can also be used for your beginner, hobbyists.or mini project needs. But, we won’t recommend these projects for your final year project requirements. While choosing the projects, you have to take care with popular circuits which are easy to implement. The logic behind learning electronics for beginners or choosing beginner Btech projects is simple; We advise you go through all the following projects which are practically tested and that will save you a lot of time for troubleshooting. All of these projects fall into the category of beginner, small or hobby and that’s why we used simple electronics for beginners as a title. And you can experiment all these circuits at your own free will and creativity.
The term TFET stands for tunneling field effect transistor, that has been developed in the year 1992 by T. Baba, as one of the capable changes to the conventional MOSFET’s based on numerous performance factors includes Possible for above the 60mV/decade, sub threshold swing, ultra-low power & ultra-low voltage, the effects of short channel, leakage current reduction, speed requirement exceeding due to the effects of tunneling, capability to work on sub-threshold and super-threshold voltage, similarity in the assembly process as equated with a MOSFET. Taking into attention the above factors, the MOSFET could be changed by a potential substitute in terms of tunneling field effect transistor for the purpose of high-speed, energy efficient , and ultra-low power applications in the area of integrated circuits.
Most of the systems need at least one phase of amplification. Hence amplifiers can be used in almost all the electronic devices. These are the devices that raise the amplitude of the i/p signal. The o/p of the power supply is controlled by the Amplifier. These can only increase the amplitude and the other parameters like frequency and shape remain constant. The main function of an amplifier is to increase the amplitude of the signal without changing the parameters like the shape of the wave or frequency. Amplifiers are one of the most frequently used circuits in electronics and achieve a variety of functions in great several electronic systems. There are numerous types of amplifiers accessible. But they can be famous by the type of signal they amplify. The different types of amplifiers can be classified by the kind of function they execute. The important characteristics of an amplifier include bandwidth, noise, skew rate, gain, stability, linearity, efficiency, output dynamic range.
In daily life, there several types of accidents are occurring. Accidents may cause due to various reasons like brake failure, drunk, and drive, etc. Most of the accidents will occur due to over drunken drivers. In order to overcome this problem, this accident avoidance system project is implemented. This project uses an alcohol sensor which is used to sense the drunken person from 200ppm onwards. If the person is drunk, Firstly we check him whether he is dunked or not. Then, this module is placed in automobiles. If the driver is dunked then the sensor will detect the alcohol amount spent by the person and it will close by buzzing using a buzzer.
Thermal imaging device is a benefit to the armed forces like navy, army and air force because of its 24 hours working capability to perform well in all climate conditions. Thermal detectors capture the IR(Infrared) radiation produced by all objects above complete zero temperature. The temperature differences of the captured section are denoted as a hectogram. With the beginning of IR detector technology, the large cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and difficult cryogenic temperatures have changed into small, and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts. Thermal imaging system due to its numerous advantages has various applications in the military and also defines.
It is widely used by the armed forces for border surveillance and law implementation. It is also used in ship accident avoidance and control systems. In the aviation industry, it seriously mitigates the dangers of flying in the night conditions. They are widely used in military flight to recognize, find and aim the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being merged in civil aviation for health checking of aircraft.
The sensor is a sophisticated device that is frequently used to sense and respond to electrical (or) optical signals. Usually, the output of the sensor will be in the form of an electrical signal or optical signal. In our daily life, we use different types of sensors frequently in various applications like the Infrared sensor is used to operate the TV remote, PIR sensor is used in automatic door opening and closing, LDR sensor is used in street lighting system, etc. In this article, e will discuss a few kinds of sensors and their uses in brief.
In this article, let us discuss the circuit for recharging the Lead Acid battery using the Solar panel. The concept of solar is not new for us. As day by day, non-renewable energy sources are reducing, and the usage of solar energy is improved. This energy is not only used on the Globe, but also used in space stations where no electrical power is accessible. Here is the simple circuit to charge a rechargeable Lead-acid battery (12V, 1.3Ah) from the solar panel. This solar charger has regulation of current, voltage and also has over-voltage cut off services. This circuit may also be used to charge the Lead-acid battery at constant voltage because o/p voltage is variable.
The various electrical and electronics components and many other types of electronic devices use a semiconductor, rather than a conductor. A semiconductor is one type of material like Si (silicon), that has some of the properties, that has some properties of both the conductors and also insulators. In fact, they have termed a whole valley in California after it. In its clean state, Si behaviors an electric current poorly.But, if we add soils like phosphorus or boron to the Si, it conducts. When you add phosphorus, it becomes an “n”-type semiconductor similarly, we add boron, it becomes a “p”-type semiconductor. A P-type semiconductor has fewer electrons than a pure semiconductor and an N-type semiconductor has more electrons than pure semiconductors.When the regions comprising phosphorus and boron are next to each other in Si, you have a PN-junction. The flow of current is only in one direction across a PN-junction.