In the present situation, the demand for high voltage production exists huge, but regrettably there are some techniques like conventional are not reaching the current demand. Transformers are being used for the high voltage AC generation which has to be rectified to DC. This technique is both bulky as well as expensive. The proposed system could be capable in both the ways. Here we are producing high voltage DC with the help of basic components like capacitors and diodes. With the amplify in flowing very high voltages can be attained. Even though it is common in several electronic circuits to employ a voltage transformer to amplify a voltage, sometimes an appropriate step-up transformer required for high-voltage applications may not always be obtainable. One other method is to employ a diode voltage multiplier circuit which boosts the voltage without the utilize of a transformer.
The auto power supply control system is a very well-situated system for the customers who want to achieve UPS (uninterruptible power supply) from various sources like solar, generator main, and inverter. If we see it at a profitable level, then we can guess that there are many customers which have the machines whose necessities is only UPS. Such as the database corporations whose all work is done on a PC, then it is needed a UPS all the time, otherwise, their PC could be off throughout the time when the load is moved on another source. To overcome these problems, here we are having a system, namely “Auto Power Supply Control System”. There are several companies are working on this project with a help of power relays, magnetic contacts. But these systems are expensive and do not offer precise UPS. Here the proposed system can be built with power electronics components, microcontroller, and relays.
The remote monitoring of transformer or generator health over the internet is one kind of system that can be used for the instantaneous data monitoring of transformer (or) generator through the internet. As we know that, the transformer and generator are the most important electrical equipment’s in every power system. If anyone of these can damage due to some reasons like current, temperature, voltage then the entire supply would be turned off. Then both the time and money would be a waste. So the real-time monitor of these two is compulsory for providing the level supply to the customer. There are many researchers are working on this to protect and monitor the expensive equipment. This article gives an overview of remote monitoring of transformer or generator health over internet using microcontroller.
The energy crisis in India is one of the major problems. Transmission of an effective power, as well as power utilization of this power, is one of the major problems. The power factor is the hidden factor, which causes a great loss of electrical energy and also harms electrical tools. The power factor of changing load can be calculated and rewarded using the static method. So we need to find out the reasons of power loss and extend the power system. Due to industrialization, the employ of inductive load boosts and therefore power system losses its efficiency. So we need to improve the power factor with a suitable method. Nowadays, the embedded system is very much popular and most of the product are developed with microcontroller based embedded technology.
As the nonsustainable power source assets are diminishing, utilization of inexhaustible assets for delivering power is expanding. Solar panels are winding up the more popular day by day. The solar panel retains the vitality from the Sun and is put away in the battery. This vitality can be used when required. Use of the vitality stored in the batteries is given in the below application. Solar panels must absorb solar energy to a maximum amount. This should be possible just if the panels are constantly put towards Sun bearing. So solar panel ought to persistently turn toward the Sun. This article depicts sun tracking solar panel and its working.
These Solid State Switches are phase controlled in a similar manner to a light dimmer, in that they are turned on for a part of each cycle. The average voltage is controlled by varying the conduction angle of the switches. Increasing the conduction angle will increase the average output voltage. Controlling the average output voltage by means of solid state switches has a number of advantages. One of the major advantages being the vast improvement in efficiency relative to the primary resistance starter, due to its low on-state voltage of the solid state switches.
Time Delay can be is defined as the controlled phase between the operations of two events. A Time Delay relay is a blend of a control circuit and an electromechanical output relay. The control circuit can be built with solid state components as well as timing circuits which controls the operation of the relay & timing range. Time delay relays have a wide range of timing choices from less than one second to many days. There are a lot of choices of timing varies from DIP switches, calibrated external knobs, recessed potentiometer, or thumbwheel switches. A circuit is intended to activate a load after a certain delay. A time delay is a relay that waits on for a certain amount of time once activated. This is made up of a simple variable timer circuit which controls the actual relay. The time is modifiable from 0 to about 200 seconds but can be amplified by increasing the time constant of the mono-stable created out of 555 timers.
Time Delay Based Relay Operated Load
The time delay based relay operated load can be built with LED, push buttons, resistor, capacitor, 555 timers, 1N4007, BC547, battery, and relay.
An embedded system can be defined as; it is a combination of software and hardware which as one form a module of a larger machine. The best example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is intended to run on its own without human interference and may be necessary to react to actions in real time.
LED is a semiconductor device which is made out of Si (silicon). When the flow of current supplies through the LED it produces photons as a byproduct. Standard light bulbs generate light by heating a metal filament until its white-hot LEDs present several advantages over usual light sources with lower energy utilization, improved strength, longer lifetime, lesser size and quicker switching.
- The BC547 transistor is a general purpose, NPN epitaxial silicon transistor, and it is available in small plastic packages. The applications of this transistor mainly involve in general-purpose switching, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors, and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V.
- When the base terminal is high, then the current flow starts flowing through base and emitter terminals and after that only flow of current will pass from collector terminal to emitter terminal.
The 555 Timer IC is a chip, used to implement a range of timer and multivibrator applications. The unique name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as “The IC Time Machine”. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8).
Pin Diagram of 555
- The 555 timer IC is a simple 8 pin DIL package IC.
- It can be used as a monostable, an astable, source or sink 100mA, use supply voltages of 5v to 15v, disrupt the power supply – use a decoupling capacitor!
- An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
- The battery has become a common power source for many household, robotics, and industrial applications.
- Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers
- It is an electromagnetic switch, used to control the electrical devices
- Copper core magnetic flux plays the main role here
The project is intended to design a time delay based switch to manage any load. A 555 IC timer is used in a monostable mode to make a relay to turn ON/OFF a load for the set time period.
A time delay based relay that stays on for a certain period of time once activated. This circuit is made up of a simple adjustable timer circuit which controls the actual relay.
The adjustability of time can be done from 0 to few seconds but can be amplified by increasing the stable time of the monostable 555-timer. The ability of current handling of the load is restricted by the type of relay used. The proposed system uses a lamp as a load.
Thus, this is all about the time delay based relay operated load. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this topic or to implement any electronics projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of time delay based relay?
The main objective of this project is to design a microcontroller based system to control a computer mouse with an IR remote. To achieve the task we have used a TV remote, a microcontroller, an IR receiver. For interfacing the system with PC, we have selected USB interfacing. This circuit is simple and easy to understand. We have tried to make the project user-friendly as much as we can. It is well-suited in almost all PC with operating systems like Windows Vista, Microsoft® Windows XP, and Windows 7. This article discusses a cordless mouse for the PC using TV remote.
Android operated home automation using Bluetooth device is a good combination of mobile technology as well as the embedded system. The user can manage Home appliances using Android device by installing on his/her Android mobile phone to control different home appliances. The user can send control signals using that application. This project comprises a Bluetooth receiver, which is connected to the circuit and it has a decoder. This decoder sends a code for the individual signal sent by the user. Then the particular load connected to the circuit will be activated depending on the signal given. At the output side of this project, we have connected 5 relays and a buzzer as a load.
A 4 quadrant DC motor control operation is necessary for industrial as well as marketable applications. These applications need both driving and braking that means motoring and generating ability. Some of these applications comprise lifts, cranes, electric traction systems, engine test loading systems, and cable laying winders. The different quadrant processes drive the motor with usual as well as the turnaround of both voltage and currents so as to run as well as to crack the motor either in any directions. Let us discuss an Arduino board based 4 quadrant dc motor control operations in brief.