Traffic jamming is a severe problem in several main cities across the world thus it is felt very important to provide such services to important vehicles. To solve the issue, we have designed a system for a dynamic and automatic density based traffic signal control system and built up a simulation model with codes to help to assemble the framework on equipment. The main goal of this proposed system to solve traffic jamming. It is conceivable to propose dynamic time-based coordination plans where the green signal time of the traffic lights is allocated in view of the current states of traffic. This is accomplished by utilizing 3 sets of IR sensors (Transmitter and Receiver) over the street to screen a specific length/zone while vehicles on a similar zone block the IR light falling on the IR receiver to assume low traffic density. As there are 3 zones just, it is irrelevant if vehicles are stopped next to each other. As it crosses the zone, the green time consequently changes as programmed.
An every Embedded system needs an RPS (regulated power supply), and the circuit of this power supply gives a changeable regulated supply and turns off in the no-load situation. During an arrangement of the voltage regulator, potentiometer and the o/p voltage is changed from 3.7volts to 8.7volts.This power supply has another feature that is, when there is no load then it automatically switches off. This process will be achieved by an arrangement of relay and transistors.
Self-Switching Power Supply
The hardware requirements of the self-switching power supply include a transformer, rectifier, filter, regulator, relay, a transistor (BC547, BC557), Resistor, Capacitor, 1N4007.
Step down Transformer
- Step down transformers secondary voltage is less than its primary voltage
- It is mainly designed to reduce the voltage from the primary winding to the secondary winding
- The transformer changes the high voltage, low current power into low voltage, high current power
Transistor (BC547, BC557)
- The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
- The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages.
- It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
- Whenever base is high, then current starts flowing through base and emitter and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter
- The BC557 transistor is a PNP Epitaxial Silicon Transistor
- The BC557 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages. It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA PNP general-purpose transistors.
A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four or more diodes arranged in the form of which gives the same output polarity for either i/p polarity. It is employed for altering an alternating current input into a direct current output.
A filter is a capacitor which filters out a certain frequency from a circuit. Generally, capacitors can be used to filter out very low-frequency signals. These signals are very near to 0Hz in the value of frequency, which is referred to as DC signals.
LM7805 Voltage Regulator
A voltage regulator 7805 is used to maintain the level of voltage automatically. It is a part of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The series xx in 78 indicates the fixed o/p voltage it is designed to provide. It provides +5V RPS (regulated power supply).
A relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a small electric current. The main purpose of the relay is to control the movement of the gate. It is used to control the electrical devices. A relay is able to control an o/p circuit of higher power than i/p circuit.
The circuit of a regulated power supply (RPS through a fixed-voltage regulator provides features like a variable and switch off This is attained by connecting a potentiometer among common regulator IC terminal and GND. For every 100 ohm increase in the value of in-circuit the potentiometer resistance, the o/p voltage increases by 1 volt. Thus, the o/p changes from 3.7V-8.7V.Another significant feature of the supply is that it turns off itself when no load is connected to its o/p terminals.
This is attained with the help of transistors, diodes, and capacitor. When a load is connected to the o/p, the potential drop across diodes is enough for transistors to perform. As a result, the relay gets activated and remains in that state as long as the load remains connected. At the same time, capacitor gets charged to around 7-8 volt potential through the transistor. But when the load is detached, the transistor is cut off. But, the capacitor is still charged and it begins discharging through the base of the transistor.
After some time, the relay is de-energized, which turns off the mains input primary of the transformer.To restart the power again, switch Push button should be pushed momentarily. Upper the value of capacitor more will be the delay in turning off the supply on detachment of the load and vice versa.
A transformer with a secondary voltage (12V-0V, 250mA) was used, it can yet be changed as per requirement. For drawing more than 300mA current, the regulator IC should be built-in with a small heatsink above a mica insulator. When the secondary voltage of transformer increases beyond 12V (RMS), potentiometer must be re-dimensioned. Also, the voltage of relay rating should be prearranged.
Self-Switching Power Supply Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages and disadvantages of self-switching power supply include the following
- It is used as a protector for electronic circuits
- It can get different voltages
- Perform as a protector for monitors
- Not expensive
- If once the supply breaks then it is powered manually
Self-Switching Power Supply Applications
- Self-switching power supply circuit can be used in different electronic types of equipment as the supply voltage.
- This circuit is used for damage fewer uses.
- By using this circuit we can generate various voltages
Almost all electronic equipment comprises a circuit that alters AC voltage of main supply into DC voltage. This portion of the equipment is termed as a power supply. Generally, at the power supply input, there is a power transformer. A diode circuit named rectifier follows it. The o/p of the rectifier goes to a smoothing filter and then to a voltage regulator circuit.
The rectifier is an essential component in the power supply. This is used a variable one and this circuit is useful in various electronic experimental applications. If you have any queries regarding this concept or to implement any electrical projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you,
One of the major problems in power system is the losses occurring during the transmission of electrical power. The loss of percentage during the transmission is approximated as 26%. The main cause for power loss during transmission is the resistance of wires used in the grid. According to WRI (world resource institute), the electricity grid of India has the highest percentage (27-40%) of power transmission losses in the world. For this reason, Telsa has proposed methods of electricity transmission using an electromagnetic induction method.
The Serbian scientist “Nikola Telsa” was the first one to research and propose the concept of wireless power transfer in the year 1899, since then many scientists have been working to make his vision a reality. In the same year he has continued research on wireless power transmission in Colorado Springs and writes, the inferiority of the induction method would come into view immense as compared with the distributed charge of ground and air method. In the year 1961, William C. Brown publishes an article exploring possibilities of microwave power transmission. In the year 2009, Sony shows a wireless electrodynamics induction powered TV set.
Power electronics is an interdisciplinary innovation used to change the attributes of the electrical power circuit such as voltage, current, frequency, and size that suit for a specific application. Power electronics can be connected in various zones: medical equipment, transportation and utilities including distinctive sub-frameworks like strong state transformer, line transformer, strong state electrical switch; and, purchaser items like media transmission types of gear, apparatuses, lighting frameworks, modern and business gadgets and types of gear. Power electronics is additionally a subject applicable to examine for electrical and electronic engineering arrangements with configuration, control, and calculation of non-direct time variation electronic frameworks.
Power electronics assumes the main part of current innovation by going about as a center of energy and vitality control. A large portion of the shopper electronic gadgets makes utilization of the AC-DC converter as a power electronic gadget with numerous battery chargers and PCs. This article discusses of UPFC related display of lag and lead power factor.
Nowadays, street light systems in the major cities are growing quickly. The important considerations in the various technologies like electrical and electronics are cost-effective, automation and also power consumption.There are various types of street lighting systems are implemented to maintain and control the lighting systems. These are used to control and reduce energy consumption. The street light controlling is one of the main developing systems in India to save the energy. This article shows the streetlight glowing system detecting the vehicle movement.
Nowadays, the current power system deals with huge power network as well as associated electrical equipment. During the electrical fault or short circuit, the power network will suffer from a high stress of fault current in them which may harm the equipment permanently. For conserving the power networks and equipment, the fault current should be very cleared from the system as fast as possible. To overcome this problem, the proposed system password based circuit breaker gives a solution to ensure lineman security. In this project, the control (ON/OFF) of the electrical lines lies with lineman. This project is set in such a way that preservation staff or lineman has to enter the password to ON/OFF the electrical line.
Power saving using time operated programmed industrial load controlling system is a reliable circuit that takes over the manual task of a switch on/off the electrical devices with respect to time. It uses real-time clock (RTC) which tracks the Real Time. When this time equals to the programmed ‘ON’ time, then the corresponding Relay for the device is switched ON and then OFF as per the ‘OFF’ time that finally switches the load ON or OFF. Multiple ON/OFF times the entry is the biggest advantage of this project. Matrix keypad helps to enter the time while relays used with relay drivers for the loads.The complete circuit has its onboard power supply.
Solar energy is changed into a current by using PV (photovoltaic) cells. Throughout the daytime, the energy keep within the batteries is used to run the pump for agriculture. This project aims at developing a controlled charging mechanism providing protections for overcharge condition, deep discharge condition and below voltage state of the battery. This planned system is comprised of a solar water pump that reduces the utilization of inverters etc, so reducing the price of the project. Using the charge-controlled mechanism; the pump is operated at four totally different time slots. Difficulties like shifting the pump ON/OFF manually are overcome using this project.
There exists an intrinsic real clock (RTC) that keeps chasing the time and so switches ON/OFF the pump consequently. MOSFET’s are utilized by the charge controller as power semiconductor switches to confirm cutting off the load (DC Pump) in conditions like low battery or overload, while, the junction transistor is employed to bypass the solar power to a dummy load whereas the battery gets absolutely charged. So the battery is shielded from obtaining overcharged.
A pick N place robot is one kind of robot, used to pick up a thing and put it in the preferred location. This robot is very useful for some places like where there is a need to pick an object move it and put it in some other place securely. The system offers a robotic arm that is controlled by an android application. Before moving further, let us notice few reasons why pick N place robots are chosen:
- They are earlier and can get the work done in seconds contrasted to their human counterparts.
- They are bendable and have the suitable design.
- They are precise.
- They amplify the safety of the working environment and in fact never get tired.
At the present time, the sensors used in the healthcare are playing a vital role in hospitals. The patient observing system namely “An automatic wireless health monitoring system “is one of the main advanced due to its innovative technology. This system is used to calculate the temperature of the patient’s body & heartbeat by using embedded technology. The sensors used in the proposed system are a temperature sensor and heartbeat sensor. These two sensors mostly used in monitoring the condition of the patient.