The Android operating system, is a trending OS now, that is used in android phones.There are many Advantages of android operating systems, these operating systems powers more than billion smartphones and tablets. Android is a mobile and a tablet operating system owned by google. It is the main competitor to the Apple Ios platform. Android was started up in 2003 and it’s taken by Google in 2005. The first version was released in September, 2008. The versions released are cupcake (v1.5), Donut (v1.6), Eclair (v2.0) in 2009. Froyo (v2.3), Gingerbread (v2.4) in 2010. Honeycomb (v3.0), Ice cream sandwich (4.0) in 2011, JellyBean (4.1 to 4.3) in 2012 and KitKat (4.4) in 2013. Lollipop (5.0) in 2014.This article gives a brief information about android OS, advantages of android operating system and applications.
What is the Android Operating System
Android is a mobile operating system based on the Linux kernel and now developed by Google. Android is primarily designed for touch screen mobile devices like smartphones, table computers, specialized user interface for Android TV, android enabled vehicles, and android wear. Android OS uses touch inputs to manipulate on-screen objects, and uses virtual keyboard. Basically, it was designed for touch screen input, it has been used by in game equipments, cameras, PC’s and other electronic devices. It is the most widely used operating systems and it is the highest selling mobile operating system nowadays. Over 1 billion users already using this operating system mobiles. This is open source and anyone can use to build applications.
Android is a Linux-based operating system for smartphones and tablets. Android includes a touch screen user interface with other features that enable a cell phone to be called a smartphone. This is a platform that supports various applications, available through the Android Stores. This platform allows end users to develop there own apps , can install and use their own applications on top of the Android framework.
Before knowing all about the development of Android, we should know all about basic internal architecture. By Knowing how things are arranged inside makes us understand the application framework better. We can design the application in a better way. The Android OS is based on Linux and it is pretty similar to Linux. The following figure illustrates the Android architecture. Software stack above the hardware that is provided by the OEMs. Topmost layer is the applications.
For example, The above diagram depicts four basic apps like App 1, App 2, App 3 and App 4 like any user interface on Android. Music player, app for making calls, a camera app, and so on. These apps are not necessarily from Google. You Can develop an app and make it available to everyone through Google Play Store. Apps are developed in Java, installed directly, no need to integrate with Android OS.
Below the applications, we take application framework, application developers can develop Android applications. The Framework offers a huge set of interfaces used by developers for various standards, no need to code every basic task. The Framework consists of different entities.
It manages the activities that govern the application life cycle and has several states. These applications may have multiple activities, with their own life cycles. But, there is one main activity that starts when the application is launched. Usually, every activity in an application is given a window that has its own layout and user interface.
It enables the applications to create customized alerts.
These are used to create layouts, including components such as grids, lists, buttons.
The Apps do require external resources, such as graphics, external strings managed by the resource manager, which makes them available in a standardized way.
Applications shares data when they require. From time to time, one application may need some data from another application. The International calling application will need to access the user’s address book, access to another application’s data is enabled by the content providers.
This layer holds all the Android native libraries. Libraries are written in C/C++ and offer capabilities similar to the application layer, with sitting on top of the kernel. These major native libraries include
- Surface Manager: Display and compositing window-in manager.
- Media framework: Audio and video formats and codecs, including their playback and recording.
- System C Libraries: Basic C library like libc targeted for ARM or embedded devices.
- OpenGL ES Libraries: 2D and 3D graphics.
- SQLite: Database engine.
The Android runtime consists of the Dalvik Virtual Machine which is basically a virtual machine for embedded devices like other , virtual machine is a by tecode interpreter. A Virtual machine for embedded systems, it is low on memory, slower and runs on battery power. It also consists of the core libraries like Java libraries and are available for all devices.
The Android OS is derived from Linux Kernel 2.6 and compiled for electronic equipment. Memory management and process management are similar. The kernel acts as a Hardware Abstraction Layer between hardware and the Android software stack.
Android is an open source and the source code is available for all developers. So It is called the Android SDK. It can be downloaded, build and work on Android in a number of different ways. If goal is to develop an Android application, no need to download all the source. Recommended the Eclipse IDE, for which there is an available Android Developer Tools (ADT) plugin. Which you can install the specific SDK, can create projects, launch emulators, finally can debug.
It is always a wise idea to check the memory requirements before starting any project. Android SDK is around 8.5GB and you will need around 30GB free disk space to build it.
Before downloading the SDK and starting cross-compiling, different prerequisites of the Android SDK we need to have. Set these up before jumping into the Android SDK software, prevention is much better than debugging. The Android version we have chosen.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Android Operating System
Supports 2D, 3D graphics
It supports various platforms like 2D and 3D. Earlier we used to watch movies and play games in almost in 2D, but nowadays various applications are using 3D format. To provide different graphics in videos, games OS should support 3D format. Android supports 2D And 3D format to provide a better advantage in videos and in games.
Supports Multiple Languages
Android supports different languages. We can say all famous languages about more than 100. By using this feature it is easy to adopt to different languages. Earlier in the feature phones English is to be the only language in the mobile devices.
The Java supporting feature enables developers to enhance more features. As it supports Java, operating can be developed.
Faster Web Browser
As it enabled with web browser we surf web easily without complexity just like in a computer. It easily loads multimedia so that it makes web browsing faster.
It Supports MP4, 3GP, MPEG4, MIDI
It supports different types of formats. There is no need to convert from one format to another, as it enabled with different formats of audio and video styles.
Additional Hardware Support
Any hardware can be easily connected with the Android based devices easily. We can make a device to connect internally to get more features.
Faster data connection enables to do video call. We can take advantage of bandwidth and new generation networks using Android.
Open Source Framework
It makes users to make their own applications and to make changes required for themselves. Enthusiasts can make Andriod more powerful and useful by developing themselves. As it is an open source operating system, we can use it easily and without cost in the equipments.
Uses of Tools are Very Simple
It makes use of a single button to do more than assigned work. For example volume control button can be made to click a photo by changing simple algorithm in the android.
Availability of Apps
Anyone can make use lot of free apps in the app store and from other android stores. It gives freedom to install from third party users.
Great Social Networking Integration
Integration can be made to different social networking sites,so you can enhance features.
Free to customize the applications and features, using user enabled development
Better Notification System
It makes users to check important notifications directly from the dashboard. It makes work easy. Earlier we used to go for every application refresh to check updates.
Updated User Interface Design
Interfacing that means human to machine integration made to update in android. Touchscreen made very useful change in the mobile use. It enables zooming and tapping features which perform very effectively in the Android operating system
At a Time Aplications
Can run numerous applications which allow consumers to help save time and efforts
Low Chance of Crashing
The Android OS is very smooth and easy to operate and less chances of crashing down
Stability and security is better than other mobiles OS as it is based on Linux Kernel. The Linux based operating system enabled with high security with unix. Every operation goes into command mode. If detected any security threats it goes to basic mode by storing to another application like cloud computing and crashes all the data on the device.
It Lets you Change Your Settings Faster
Android makes fast changes to settings. By enabling different apps and tasks we can make use of android operating system.
It Gives you More Options to Fit your Budget
Android makes cheap and gives better performance for lower costs. It is open source and open framework.
Support for Extra Large Screen Sizes and Resolutions
Android supports better screen sizes for applications and enhanced resolutions make users more freedom to enjoy bright and clear formats.
System Wide Copy and Paste Functionalities
Earlier we used to copy and paste in the same application. Developers thought to make whole phone operating as a computer based operating system. Android came with the system wide copy and paste option. It makes user to edit more easily.
Redesigned Multi Touch Software Keyboard
Redesigned keyboards like qwerty touch made users to type with more freedom. Intelligent keyboards made vast changes in the mobile typing keyboards. It made dictionary to adoptable and various features like drag and detect made revolution.
Audio,Graphical and Input Enhancements for Game Developers
Android made various changes in the multimedia used for the mobile devices. Different audio enhancements made changes to the audio quality.
Improved Power Management and Application Control
It only allows current applications to consume power and RAM memory. Other apps also will continue in the background to update. After switching to app system will allocate memory and power.with this method, device can consume can save power and memory in the system. Support for multiple cameras.
Disadvantages of Android OS
compared to ‘ios’ of apple,windows 8 of Microsoft.when we open same app in the ios and windoes8. We observe the slow response of the android when we open apps in the different platforms.
Compared to other operating systems android makes use of processes very efficient. This makes processor to get heat. Some hardware companies take care to reduce heat,but it went in vain when we operate it a long time and at low battery.
When we use an android app we encounter several adds in between application use, because anyone can make add by inserting some logic in the app program and can interfere in into the phones information.
This is all about android operating system and the advantages of android operating system, which made tremendous changes in last five years. Almost every smart phone, tablet and electronic device using android operating system. It is user friendly and open source to develop. It provides lots of advantages so it already attracted more than one and half billion users.Furthermore, any queries regarding this article or android based projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below.