In the recent years, photovoltaic cells in the solar panel shortly called as PV systems have received much attention due to an unfavorable scenario affecting the excessive use of fossil fuels and energy security which are about to extinct. Day by day, the capacity of these systems is increasing gradually. The capacities of order of solar panel are available as primary and secondary capacities. Generally in primary capacity, a few megawatts of power is installed and interfaced to the grid, whereas in secondary capacity, solar panels are installed on the top of the roof. The main advantage of using this solar energy is to bring a change in the green city. The main principle involved in solar energy is to convert sunlight into electrical energy.
According to the IEA (International Energy Agency) by 2050 the contribution of solar power from all the countries would reach to 16 percent. The first silicon solar cell was built by Bell Laboratories in the mid of the 20th century. Mojave Desert in California is the largest solar project in the world, which is under construction. This project came up with a new concept called as solar thermal energy. After the construction would be done, 350,000 mirrors will reflect light onto boilers. The water gets heated and the generated steam will drive the turbine, which generates the electricity. It was told that the energy will be supplied to atleast 140,000 homes. This will drop the global warming and air pollution.
OPERATION OF A SOLAR PANEL
A PV module is combined as an array to satisfy different energy demands in this world. The band gap energy of PV material is less than the Photons of light; this will make the electrons of the material to break free from the atoms that hold them and create hole-electron pairs. Later these electrons will fall back into holes causing charge carriers to disappear. When an electric field is provided in the conduction band, then the holes will move towards the metallic contact –the place where they will emerge as electric current.
Basically, in the PV cell, the electrical contacts on bottom and top capture electrons. The PV cell sends power to the load, and then the electron go from n-side through connected wire to the load and back to the p-side where they recombine with holes. In conventional set up, the current flows in the opposite direction from electrons.
MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER
The primary use of a MPPT is DC to DC converter that optimizes the match between PV panels and battery bank; in large projects, it is connected to the utility grid. Generally a solar panel converts only 30-40 percentage of the incident solar irradiation into electrical energy. The maximum power point technique is used to enhance the efficiency of the solar panel.
MPPT has a separate algorithm that balances the output. The rays of the sun light won’t be same throughout the day and also throughout the year, therefore the MPPT will play a key role in maintaining constant output.The amount of sun rays reached to the solar panel is called insolation A pyranometer is a type of instrument used to measure the heating of the power per unit area received from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation wavelength . Spain is the largest user of solar energy in the world.
The advantages of solar energy mainly include low maintenance, no Fumes, unattended operation, reliable long life, no fuel, easy to install, low recurrent cost, system is modular and closely matched to need.
The disadvantages of solar energy mainly include relatively high initial cost and low output in the cloudy weather.
This category consists of solar projects with abstract, PPT and block diagram which can be downloaded by the students. Here we have listed out the collection of solar based projects.