The solar energy marketplace is one of the most quickly growing renewable energy advertise in the United States. Currently, we have seen an important enhancement in requirements for remote monitoring and equipment control for different applications of solar energy. Whether you are assessed a site’s potential for solar power generation, monitoring act of accessible solar installations, or superior solar monitoring, consistent and precise measurements are crucial. They help in decision making, development of the product, maintenance of the system and in many other ways. General meteorological measurements with wind direction, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall, all have they’re applied in solar applications. Of course, the solar energy measurements are particularly significant and sensors are accessible for measuring all features of solar radiation.
This project is designed for the students who can understand the technology used in recent days driverless metro trains which are used in most of the metro cities and developed countries like France, Germany, and Japan etc. These trains are set with the CPU to control the train. This auto metro train is programmed for a precise path. Every station on the lane is defined and also the timing of the train stoppage and distance between the two stations is predefined.
This proposed system doesn’t need any driver because it is an autonomous train. In this project, a microcontroller has been used as CPU. Whenever the train arrives at the platform it stops automatically, as sensed by an infrared sensor. Then the door opens automatically so that the passengers can go on the train, then the door automatically closes after a set time set in the controller by the program.
Voltage variations have always been a trouble and are liable for most of the breakdown in AC appliances. Be it a usual home appliance such as a Toaster or a high-performance industrial apparatus like a CNC; everything has a rated voltage only on which it will run without any problem at its maximum efficiency. Unfortunately, our Industrial Lines be unsuccessful to offer us that rated voltage due to a variety of reasons, hence in this project we are going to make a simple electronic circuit breaker which could activate a relay to detach the load when a high or low voltage detected.
The motor is a most crucial electrical device in the current period of automation. These are used in various industrial applications, but can be protected from the various faluts like mechanical, electrical faults to help their purposes. This article discusses an induction motor protection system from emerging faults by employing a microcontroller. This motor experiences different types of electrical faults like over voltage, under voltage, overload, unbalanced voltage, phase reversing earth fault, and single phasing. Due to these electrical faults, the motor’s windings will get heated which lead to decrease the life of the motor. The degree of the induction motor depends on the costs and functions of the motor.
We must have seen the dancing LEDs in discotheque or DJ lights, which Turn ON and OFF based on the music beats. These lights blink according to the volume and length of music beats. Basically, these are intended to choose the high-intensity sound such as Bass sound. So these lights go after the high pitch beats in tune like drum beats, and Turn ON & OFF based on the music pattern. In the past, we have built Dancing LEDs, which just goes to a set pattern and we can only manage the speed. Now we are taking this to next level, i.e. Music Tone Operated Dancing LEDs, in which light emitting diodes will blink according to music beats like a Disco light. This Musical LEDs system is very simple and easy to design, it just requires few basic electrical and electronic components and it appears very cool.
Music Tone Based Dancing LEDs
The proposed system is implemented in such a way that the lights blink according to the musical tones. This music operated running LEDs circuit uses integrated circuits. The music tones are detected by a condenser microphone which is then amplified by an IC. The o/ps of the IC are fed to the transistors to make the bulbs blink or dance as per the music played.
The hardware requirements of music tone based dancing LEDs include decade counter IC, op-amp, transistors, potentiometers, condenser microphone, diodes, led’s, capacitors and resistors.
An electrical battery is an arrangement of one or more electrochemical cells, used to change stored chemical energy into electrical energy. The battery is a common power source for numerous applications like a household, robotics, and industrial applications. Larger batteries give standby power for telephone connections or computer data centres.
The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon (Si) diode used in signal processing. Its name follows the JEDEC arrangement.
An operational amplifier or op-amp is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input & a single-ended o/p. An operational amplifier generates an o/p voltage that is usually thousands of times larger than the voltage difference between its i/p terminals.
The circuit symbol for an operational amplifier is shown, where:
- Non-inverting input
- inverting input
- Positive power supply
- Negative power supply
- Condenser (capacitor) is an electronic component used to store energy in the form of an electrostatic field.
- Actually, the term itself is obsolete but has fixed as the name for this sort of microphone, which employs a capacitor to change acoustical energy into electrical energy.
- The resultant audio signal is a stronger signal than that from a dynamic.
- The electrets condenser mic uses a particular type of capacitor which has a stable voltage built in during manufacture.
- This is somewhat like a stable magnet, in that it doesn’t need any external power for operation.
Audio Level Indicator IC (CTC1403)/Decade Counter IC(4017)
In electronics, counters can be executed quite easily using register type circuits like FF (flip-flop) and a wide variety of types exist. The 4017 decade counter has 10 outputs which go HIGH in series when a starting place of pulses is connected to the input of the CLK and when appropriate logic levels are applied to the inputs of the RESET and ENABLE pins.
Inside The 4017
Essentially, the logic state of the D FF or data i/p is transferred to the Q o/p on the rising edge of the CLK signal.For a shift register, the CLK inputs of all the D-type stages are connected together so that all the FFs are clocked at the same time.
The diagram shows how the Johnson counter outputs can be decoded to give a 1 of 6 outputs:
Music Tone Based Dancing LEDs Working
The proposed system is projected to design musical tone based dancing LEDs those light up in synchronization with the music beat played.
This project is built with a microphone through which the tone is picked up and amplified. Then this signal activates a series of LEDs through an intermediate circuit. Hence, blinking of LEDs happens when an audio music continually changes its beat. As a result, a musical sequence of changing LEDs shows with the varying beat of the music.
In future, this system can be improved by using TRIACs and Opto-Isolators to use high power lamps instead of LEDs.
Thus, this is all about music tone based dancing leads. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept.Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or to implement any electrical and electronic projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of dancing LEDs?
The robot is a machine or electro-mechanical device used for various purposes and the working and controlling of a robot can be done with the help of programming techniques. There are different types of robots are available based on their applications like industrial robots, space robots, military robots, walking robots, domestic robots, climbing robots, and so on. In this article, let us discuss a special type of robotic vehicle namely line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicle. The robotic vehicles like line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicles are special sort of robots designed without a human on board. These robots are operated and controlled by employing various sensor-based control systems. These robots are specially designed in some conditions like where human beings are not capable to go in such as fire accidents, very high or very low temperatures, etc.,
At present, almost of the public having their own vehicle, burglary is happening in insecurity places like vehicle parking, driving, etc. The protection of vehicles is very necessary for public transportation. The vehicle is tracing and security system fixed in the vehicle to trace the place and locking the vehicles engine motor. The location of the vehicle recognized using Global Positioning system and Global system mobile communication. These two systems continually watch a moving vehicle and report the position on request. When the burglary recognized, the responsible person sends an SMS to the microcontroller, then microcontroller issue the control signals to halt the engine motor. Authorized person needs to send the PIN to controller to restart the vehicle and open the door. This is more protected, trustworthy and low-cost.
The electronic eye controlled security system is invented in the year 1997, base of operations in New Delhi. There are some organizations under the security systems are electronic eye Pvt. Ltd, Indian institute of science & technology, electronic eye systems, and Mahamahi Exims. This system creates a whole collection of high-tech security and surveillance products. These 0Systems work on the combination of system and project execution at the customers place for numerous surveillance products. This article discusses what is an electronic eye and electronic eye controlled security system project with a brief explanation.
For the satisfactory working of all devices, it is suggested to permit voltage at setting limits. Voltage variations in electric power supply definitely have adverse effects on different loads. These voltage fluctuations can be caused by several reasons such as voltage surges, overload, lightning, etc. Over voltages are the voltages that beat the normal values which cause insulation loss to electrical appliances leading to short circuits. Likewise, under-voltage causes overloading of the apparatus leading to lamp sparks and ineffective performance of the apparatus. Thus, this article is proposed to give over voltage and under voltage protection.To understand this concept and know it well, one request to go through this concept.
Solar Inverter Currently, the necessity of the solar inverter has been improving day by day. It is a common inverter, but uses energy from the sun that is termed as “solar energy”. This kind of inverter helps in changing the DC-AC uses solar power. In this circuit, the DC power flows in one direction and also assists in supplying current when there is no electricity.DC is used for minor appliances like electronic gadgets, MP3 players, iPod, etc (where there is power stored in the battery). In the case of alternative current (AC) is the power that stores back and forth inside the circuit. Usually, the AC power is used for home appliances. A solar inverter aids several devices that work on DC power to run on AC power so that the worker makes use of the AC power. If you are thinking this inverter is as an alternate to the normal electric one, then it is due to the solar inverter that makes use of the solar energy which is available in sufficient from the Sun and is spotless and also pollution free.