The term PIC stands for the peripheral interface controller was developed in the year 1993 by “Microchip Technology”. Firstly, this controller was developed for supporting PDP computer to regulate its peripheral devices, and thus, termed as a peripheral interface device.PIC microcontrollers are very fast and executing a program can be made easy compared with other controllers. The architecture of this microcontroller based on “Harvard architecture”. The specifications of this microcontroller include wide availability, ease of programming, serial programming capacity, large user base, interfacing of microcontroller with other peripherals, etc.
Day by day, there are different types of intelligent systems are introduced with the improvement in technology. Everything is getting more intelligible and stylish. There is a growth in the demand of cutting edge technology and also smart electronic systems. In the proposed systems, microcontroller plays a vital role in the smart systems development. Microcontrollers have become an essential part in the present technologies that are being presented daily. This article discusses temperature based fan speed control and monitoring system using an Arduino system.This system is used to control the cooling system automatically based on the room temperature. The system uses an Arduino board to implement a control system. Since this system is proposed to control the cooling system and it is very important to know Arduino controlled system well.
The water level alarm circuit is a simple mechanism to detect and indicate the level of water in the overhead tank and also in the other containers. Nowadays, all the householders/owners are storing the water in overhead tanks by using the pumps. When the water is stored in the tank, no one can identify the level of water and also, no one can know when the water tank will fill. Hence there is an overflow of water in the tank, thus there is a wastage of energy and water. To resolve this type of problems by using the water level alarm circuit of a 555 timer it helps and indicated the level of water in the overhead tanks. The cost of the water level alarm circuit low and its use full for the overhead water tanks, swimming pool boilers, etc.. The water level alarm circuits are used in the factories, chemical plants, and electrical substations and also in other liquid storage systems.
Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania created in 1745 that charge can be stored by linking a high electrostatic generator with the help of wire to a volume of water in a hand held glass jar. The water is observed as a conductor and the jar acts as a dielectric plate. Von Kleist has observed that by touching the two wires the result is in the form of power full sparks and more pain full occurs from the electro-static machine. The similar projects were founded in the following years by Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek and he named as a Leyden jar. Daniel Gralath is the first person who combined several jars in parallel into a battery to increase the charge storage capacity. Leyden jar has investigated by the Benjamin Frankin and he came to know that the charge was stored in the glass but not in the water. Later on the Leyden jar was made by coating inside and outside of the jar with the help of metal foil and leaving a space in the mouth protect arcing between the foil. In earlier days the units of capacitance is jar and equipment is about 1.11 nano farads. This article gives an overview of what is a capacitor, how to make a capacitor construction, working, advantages and disadvantages.
Now-a-days parents are getting too busy with their works and tend to forget about the child and babies. After a facing a small accident by the child and later parents notice it, will not affect much as they couldn’t able to stop the accident. To overcome from this small mishap to the kids called child monitoring system where, a PIR sensor is placed in the living of the child. Once the child starts to move in the living room from the placed where the child is placed then the sensor will alert the alarm. This sign will help the parents to monitor the baby and look after. This will prevent the child from many dangerous situations. In this article we will study about the PIR sensor circuit working and how it really monitors the child from all sorts of dangerous situations.
The advanced home security system has changed to the modern security system in our day to day life. Security systems are protected in the home from the thief, dangerous incidents in our home surroundings. The home security system starts from keeping the things safety. The safety in the home has to start the home owner and to look after the home. The best way to protect the home is by installing the security system in the home. There are two different types of the security system, i.e. wired and wireless security system. Nowadays, most of them are using wireless security system.
It is easy to use and protected by the unknown person. The wireless system securities are camera, motion sensor detector, alarm sound with the help of this the home is secured with their each of their functions. The home security systems are frequently used by the monitor detector and motion sensor and these are placed in unknown places.
The Max-232 IC is started by the maxim integrated products in 1987. It is an integrated circuit which converts the signals from the RS232 serial port to the proper signal which are used in the TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 can convert the signals like RX, TX, CTS, and RTS and it is a dual driver/receiver. The driver increases the output voltage levels of TIA232 from a 5 volt supply to 7.5 volts by using the external capacitor and on chip charge pumps. The receiver reduces the input levels of the TIA232 from 25 volts to the standard voltage level, i.e. 5volts of TTL levels and there is a threshold of 1.3 volts and hysteresis of 0.5 volts for the receiver. Further the max232 IC is extended by the four receivers and transmitters simultaneously with eight receivers and transmitters which are MAX238 and MAX248 and there are many combinations of receivers and transmitters.
A flexible printed circuit can be defined as an outline of conductive traces bonded on a flexible substrate. Flexible circuit board provides an unlimited freedom of packaging geometry while retaining the accuracy density and repeatability of printed circuits. A characteristic flex circuit board comprises a hybrid of ordinary printed circuit boards and round wire, complementing each other. They are a kind of high dependability substitute for wire and wire harness assemblies that help save costs and at the equal time maintain the excellence of performance. We detail below the unique characteristics of our flex circuits (our Single and Double Sided Flex PCBs). The most convincing difference between flexible circuits is flexibility. Flexible circuits are regularly much thinner and are able to conform to the spacing limitations and environments into which they are installed.
The break down diode is an electronic component with two electrodes called as the anode and the cathode. Most of the diode is made up of semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium etc. The fundamental property of a diode is to conduct electric current in only one direction and blocks the current that flows in the opposite direction. When the cathode is negative charge related to the anode at a voltage greater than minimum called as forward breaker, then the current flows through the diode. If the cathode is positive with respect to anode, is at the same voltage of a node, or is negative by an amount less than the forward breakover voltage, then the voltage doesn’t conduct current. Diode characteristic almost matches with the switch. The oldest of semiconductor devices was the crystal detector. It was used in early wireless radio. The forward breakover voltage of silicon device is 0.6V, germanium is 0.3V, selenium devices is 1V.
Generally, an RF module is a small size electronic device, that is used to transmit or receive radio signals between two devices. The main application of RF module is an embedded system to communicate with another device wirelessly. This communication may be accomplished through radio frequency communication. For various applications the medium of choice is radio frequency since it does not need line of sight.The applications of RF modules mainly involve in low volume and medium volume products for consumer applications like wireless alarm systems, garage door openers, smart sensor applications, wireless home automation systems and industrial remote controls. This article discusses about block diagram of RF transceiver module and its applications.