Nowadays, the necessity of the solar inverter has been increased. A solar inverter is a common inverter but uses energy from the sun that is solar energy. This type of inverter aids in changing the DC into AC using solar power. DC is the power which flows in one direction in the circuit and helps in providing current when there is no electricity. Direct current is used for small appliances such as gadgets, iPod, MP3 players, etc. where there is power stored in the battery. In the case of AC (alternative current) is the power that supplies back and forth inside the circuit. Generally, the AC power is used for household appliances.A solar inverter helps many devices that run on DC power to run on AC power so that the operator makes use of the AC power. If you are thinking why to use this inverter as an alternative to the normal electric one, then it is because the solar inverter makes use of the solar energy which is obtainable in ample from the Sun and is clean and also pollution free.
The term biometric is derived from Greek words such as bio (life) and metric (to measure). The Biometric is used to recognize his or her behavior characteristics of a person. This kind of identification is preferred over traditional methods, comprising PIN numbers and passwords for its accuracy and case sensitiveness. Based on the development, this system can be used as an identification system. These systems are divided into various types like fingerprints, vein pattern, DNA, hand geometry, voice pattern, signature dynamics, iris pattern, and face detection. This article discusses new infrared LED for biometric identification applications.
Every type of microcontroller plays a vital role in the embedded systems after the progress of Intel 8051.The exploration in the field of embedded industry offered low power consumption, high efficiency microcontrollers. The different types of microcontrollers like Arm, AVR and PIC are the prime examples. These types of microcontrollers are getting smart with different communication protocols, namely I2C, SPI, USB, CAN and Ethernet. In 1998, microchip technology developed PIC microcontroller with new complex architecture and higher integral peripherals. The architecture of this microcontroller is based on Hardward Architecture and these microcontrollers are extensively used in industries due to its main features. The applications of this microcontroller mainly include in making PIC microcontroller projects.
A Microcontroller is a low-cost single-chip computer. The most important features of the microcontroller are its abilities of strong and running a program. Every Microcontroller unit comprises of several major units;
- Input / Output Ports
- Control Pins: reset, power, clock
- Processor (CPU)
- Serial and parallel ports
- Memory (RAM, ROM, EEPROM)
- A/D and D/A converters
Every PIC microcontroller provides a different combination of features, thus the most appropriate can be nominated for any application. Some of the main collection conditions are:
- Number of I/O Pins
- Size of the Program Memory
- Type of the Program Memory
- EEPROM data memory
- Timers, CCP
- Interrupt Sources
- Analog i/ps
- Serial Communication Interfaces
- Interior oscillator
- Package (DIP, SOIC, PLCC, QFP)
When designing an embedded system, the type and number of inputs & outputs need to be determined. After the hardware necessities have been recognized, the program must be written and tested. Once the program size is known, then the memory of the chip size can be determined. The programming of this microcontroller can be done by using assembly language or embedded c by using circuit wizard software. Before going to design a PIC microcontroller project, we must become aware of designing a basic microcontroller based project. Once you get the basic idea, the microcontroller based project designing will be easy.Please refer the link below for: Free eBook on How to Design Your Own Microcontroller Projects – Edgefx Kits
The automatic door bell system is an attractive and much useful circuits in our day to day life. Generally, most of the house owners are using the doorbells. If the visitor comes to the house, first he/she searches for the doorbell. If the house owner is using the automatic doorbell system with the object detection, then the visitor need not to search for the switch of the door bell. Automatically, the sensor will sense the object or the person, hence, the sound will produce at the door. This circuit is very useful for the shorter persons, if he/she can’t press the doorbell switch, then the circuit will automatically sense the person and produce the sound.
The programmable timer is a simple circuit in the series of a timer. This timer circuit is used to switch ON/OFF a device. The time period of this circuit is from 8 seconds to 2 hours. The programmable timer works with the single input and in some other conditions, it may use a pair of signals. Based on the timer event the timer will exist in many processors. The digital timers are used in several types by LCD, LED and gives longer service. The programmable timer is used for measurement, display.
What is a Programmable Timer?
The programmable timer is a device which is used for loading a switch ON and OFF after a predetermined delay as per the condition. According to the user personal specs, the delay timings are adjustable. The ON time delay and OFF time delay are independently capable of setting and it has become the most important feature of a programmable timer circuit.
Programmable Timer Circuit using 555 Timer IC
This circuit is constructed by two integrated circuits. The integrated circuit IC1 is a 555 IC and the IC2 is a 7442 IC. The 555 IC is used as a monostable mode, therefore when the output is low the pin-2 of the trigger is high and vice-versa.
This circuit is constructed by two integrated circuits. The integrated circuit IC1 is a 555 IC and the IC2 is a 7442 IC. The 555 IC is used as a monostable mode, therefore when the output is low the pin-2 of the trigger is high and vice-versa. The preset time output is high when it is determined by the value of capacitor C1 with its corresponding preset through the switch SW5.
The IC 7442 is a second integrated circuit (IC2), it is used for selecting the time duration period. There are 10 outputs from the programmable timer are connected to the 3-volt relay respectively. Where preset VR1 to VR10 are connected to an RL1 trough RL10 respectively. The following table shows the approximate binary codes. The resistor values of R1, R2, R3, R4, R6, R7 is equal to the 10Kohms. The capacitor values of C1 and C2 are 220 µF/25V, 0.01 µF respectively.
|Preset||SW4 8||SW3 4||SW22||SW1 1|
Programmable Digital Timer Circuit
A timer is a type of clock used for measuring the time intervals. The timers are classified into two different types like counting upwards and counting downwards. The designs of the timer are completely needed in the industry that means keeping time on certain devices and the timers are the mechanical devices used in the clockwork mechanisms. In the market, the digital logic circuit has more popular with less price and individual timers are implemented with the single chip circuit design. The development of two electromechanical timers is designed to produce more precise time measurement.
The first one is the principle of heat extension to increase the temperature of metal finger prepared by two different metals varying the rate of thermal expansion. If the current flows through the metal, therefore heat will start and on one side of the metal, the heat will produce more quickly than the other side of the metal. Thus, there is a move of electrical contact away from the electrical switch contact. The second one is the small AC motor, which is a predetermined rate suitable for the applications of alternating current.
The following circuit diagram shows the adjustable digital timer circuit by using the microcontroller of PIC16F628A. It is a programmed to plan the ON and OFF operations of an electrical appliance. The digital timer circuit consists of three parts like power supply, display and control circuit. The applied voltage is depending on relay voltage and the range of the voltage is from 5V to 12V. If you use 5V power supply then you can’t use the LM7805 regulator IC and 5 volts is applied directly. If you are applying less than 12 volts or greater than the 5 volts, therefore, you have to use the regulated IC and PIC is used as an internal oscillator.
To display the numbers there are two variations like 4dg_tmr_min.hex and 4dg_tmr_hr.hex. The first file is used to display the minutes and seconds and timer is from 1 second to 60 minutes. The other file is used to display the minutes and hours and it is from 1 minute to 24 hours and hours and minutes are displayed on the seven segment layer.
Simple Programmable Timer Circuit
This timer circuit is build by using the versatile IC 4060. The circuit has very easy configuration by using the versatile IC’s and the circuit requires a minimal number of components to get the running unit. The two IC’s are wired up with the two independent modes, therefore, timing is different for two sections. These two integrated circuits are coupled with each other and their initializing has become interconnected.
The output of the upper IC is united to the reset input of the lower IC through the transistor in such way that the output goes high for an upper IC and it triggers the operation of the lower timer. The lower IC starts counting, its output goes high. Stops the upper IC counting, it will reset to its original state and the process is initiated from the starting. Simply we can say that as long as the upper ICs timing does not fall the lower IC remains idle. Even though upper IC’s lapses and its output became high and it switches the output load and lower IC operation. The upper IC is used for determining how long the load will be switched ON and lower IC is used for determining at what time the switch will be OFF.
Applications of Programmable Timer
- The programmable timer is used for the measurement purpose.
- Display and control in appliances that have variants.
Advantages of Programmable Timer
- In most of the timing applications, the 555 timers IC is used
- The 555 timer can generate pulse width modulation from kilowatts to megawatts
- The 555 timer can act as monostable, bistable and astable mode
- The complex circuit can avoid by using the IC4060
- The ic4060 circuit is more superior to the 555 timer IC
This article will describe the programmable timer circuit with their appliances. I hope by reading this article you gained some basic information about the programmable timer circuits. If you have any queries about this article or about electrical projects based on engineering please feel free to comment in the below section. Here is the question for you, What are the functions of programmable timer?
Simple Programmable Timer Circuit blogspot
The term PIC stands for the peripheral interface controller was developed in the year 1993 by “Microchip Technology”. Firstly, this controller was developed for supporting PDP computer to regulate its peripheral devices, and thus, termed as a peripheral interface device.PIC microcontrollers are very fast and executing a program can be made easy compared with other controllers. The architecture of this microcontroller based on “Harvard architecture”. The specifications of this microcontroller include wide availability, ease of programming, serial programming capacity, large user base, interfacing of microcontroller with other peripherals, etc.
Day by day, there are different types of intelligent systems are introduced with the improvement in technology. Everything is getting more intelligible and stylish. There is a growth in the demand of cutting edge technology and also smart electronic systems. In the proposed systems, microcontroller plays a vital role in the smart systems development. Microcontrollers have become an essential part in the present technologies that are being presented daily. This article discusses temperature based fan speed control and monitoring system using an Arduino system.This system is used to control the cooling system automatically based on the room temperature. The system uses an Arduino board to implement a control system. Since this system is proposed to control the cooling system and it is very important to know Arduino controlled system well.
The water level alarm circuit is a simple mechanism to detect and indicate the level of water in the overhead tank and also in the other containers. Nowadays, all the householders/owners are storing the water in overhead tanks by using the pumps. When the water is stored in the tank, no one can identify the level of water and also, no one can know when the water tank will fill. Hence there is an overflow of water in the tank, thus there is a wastage of energy and water. To resolve this type of problems by using the water level alarm circuit of a 555 timer it helps and indicated the level of water in the overhead tanks. The cost of the water level alarm circuit low and its use full for the overhead water tanks, swimming pool boilers, etc.. The water level alarm circuits are used in the factories, chemical plants, and electrical substations and also in other liquid storage systems.
Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania created in 1745 that charge can be stored by linking a high electrostatic generator with the help of wire to a volume of water in a hand held glass jar. The water is observed as a conductor and the jar acts as a dielectric plate. Von Kleist has observed that by touching the two wires the result is in the form of power full sparks and more pain full occurs from the electro-static machine. The similar projects were founded in the following years by Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek and he named as a Leyden jar. Daniel Gralath is the first person who combined several jars in parallel into a battery to increase the charge storage capacity. Leyden jar has investigated by the Benjamin Frankin and he came to know that the charge was stored in the glass but not in the water. Later on the Leyden jar was made by coating inside and outside of the jar with the help of metal foil and leaving a space in the mouth protect arcing between the foil. In earlier days the units of capacitance is jar and equipment is about 1.11 nano farads. This article gives an overview of what is a capacitor, how to make a capacitor construction, working, advantages and disadvantages.
Now-a-days parents are getting too busy with their works and tend to forget about the child and babies. After a facing a small accident by the child and later parents notice it, will not affect much as they couldn’t able to stop the accident. To overcome from this small mishap to the kids called child monitoring system where, a PIR sensor is placed in the living of the child. Once the child starts to move in the living room from the placed where the child is placed then the sensor will alert the alarm. This sign will help the parents to monitor the baby and look after. This will prevent the child from many dangerous situations. In this article we will study about the PIR sensor circuit working and how it really monitors the child from all sorts of dangerous situations.