The motor is a most crucial electrical device in the current period of automation. These are used in various industrial applications, but can be protected from the various faluts like mechanical, electrical faults to help their purposes. This article discusses an induction motor protection system from emerging faults by employing a microcontroller. This motor experiences different types of electrical faults like over voltage, under voltage, overload, unbalanced voltage, phase reversing earth fault, and single phasing. Due to these electrical faults, the motor’s windings will get heated which lead to decrease the life of the motor. The degree of the induction motor depends on the costs and functions of the motor.
We must have seen the dancing LEDs in discotheque or DJ lights, which Turn ON and OFF based on the music beats. These lights blink according to the volume and length of music beats. Basically, these are intended to choose the high-intensity sound such as Bass sound. So these lights go after the high pitch beats in tune like drum beats, and Turn ON & OFF based on the music pattern. In the past, we have built Dancing LEDs, which just goes to a set pattern and we can only manage the speed. Now we are taking this to next level, i.e. Music Tone Operated Dancing LEDs, in which light emitting diodes will blink according to music beats like a Disco light. This Musical LEDs system is very simple and easy to design, it just requires few basic electrical and electronic components and it appears very cool.
Music Tone Based Dancing LEDs
The proposed system is implemented in such a way that the lights blink according to the musical tones. This music operated running LEDs circuit uses integrated circuits. The music tones are detected by a condenser microphone which is then amplified by an IC. The o/ps of the IC are fed to the transistors to make the bulbs blink or dance as per the music played.
The hardware requirements of music tone based dancing LEDs include decade counter IC, op-amp, transistors, potentiometers, condenser microphone, diodes, led’s, capacitors and resistors.
An electrical battery is an arrangement of one or more electrochemical cells, used to change stored chemical energy into electrical energy. The battery is a common power source for numerous applications like a household, robotics, and industrial applications. Larger batteries give standby power for telephone connections or computer data centres.
The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon (Si) diode used in signal processing. Its name follows the JEDEC arrangement.
An operational amplifier or op-amp is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input & a single-ended o/p. An operational amplifier generates an o/p voltage that is usually thousands of times larger than the voltage difference between its i/p terminals.
The circuit symbol for an operational amplifier is shown, where:
- Non-inverting input
- inverting input
- Positive power supply
- Negative power supply
- Condenser (capacitor) is an electronic component used to store energy in the form of an electrostatic field.
- Actually, the term itself is obsolete but has fixed as the name for this sort of microphone, which employs a capacitor to change acoustical energy into electrical energy.
- The resultant audio signal is a stronger signal than that from a dynamic.
- The electrets condenser mic uses a particular type of capacitor which has a stable voltage built in during manufacture.
- This is somewhat like a stable magnet, in that it doesn’t need any external power for operation.
Audio Level Indicator IC (CTC1403)/Decade Counter IC(4017)
In electronics, counters can be executed quite easily using register type circuits like FF (flip-flop) and a wide variety of types exist. The 4017 decade counter has 10 outputs which go HIGH in series when a starting place of pulses is connected to the input of the CLK and when appropriate logic levels are applied to the inputs of the RESET and ENABLE pins.
Inside The 4017
Essentially, the logic state of the D FF or data i/p is transferred to the Q o/p on the rising edge of the CLK signal.For a shift register, the CLK inputs of all the D-type stages are connected together so that all the FFs are clocked at the same time.
The diagram shows how the Johnson counter outputs can be decoded to give a 1 of 6 outputs:
Music Tone Based Dancing LEDs Working
The proposed system is projected to design musical tone based dancing LEDs those light up in synchronization with the music beat played.
This project is built with a microphone through which the tone is picked up and amplified. Then this signal activates a series of LEDs through an intermediate circuit. Hence, blinking of LEDs happens when an audio music continually changes its beat. As a result, a musical sequence of changing LEDs shows with the varying beat of the music.
In future, this system can be improved by using TRIACs and Opto-Isolators to use high power lamps instead of LEDs.
Thus, this is all about music tone based dancing leads. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept.Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or to implement any electrical and electronic projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of dancing LEDs?
The robot is a machine or electro-mechanical device used for various purposes and the working and controlling of a robot can be done with the help of programming techniques. There are different types of robots are available based on their applications like industrial robots, space robots, military robots, walking robots, domestic robots, climbing robots, and so on. In this article, let us discuss a special type of robotic vehicle namely line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicle. The robotic vehicles like line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicles are special sort of robots designed without a human on board. These robots are operated and controlled by employing various sensor-based control systems. These robots are specially designed in some conditions like where human beings are not capable to go in such as fire accidents, very high or very low temperatures, etc.,
At present, almost of the public having their own vehicle, burglary is happening in insecurity places like vehicle parking, driving, etc. The protection of vehicles is very necessary for public transportation. The vehicle is tracing and security system fixed in the vehicle to trace the place and locking the vehicles engine motor. The location of the vehicle recognized using Global Positioning system and Global system mobile communication. These two systems continually watch a moving vehicle and report the position on request. When the burglary recognized, the responsible person sends an SMS to the microcontroller, then microcontroller issue the control signals to halt the engine motor. Authorized person needs to send the PIN to controller to restart the vehicle and open the door. This is more protected, trustworthy and low-cost.
The electronic eye controlled security system is invented in the year 1997, base of operations in New Delhi. There are some organizations under the security systems are electronic eye Pvt. Ltd, Indian institute of science & technology, electronic eye systems, and Mahamahi Exims. This system creates a whole collection of high-tech security and surveillance products. These 0Systems work on the combination of system and project execution at the customers place for numerous surveillance products. This article discusses what is an electronic eye and electronic eye controlled security system project with a brief explanation.
For the satisfactory working of all devices, it is suggested to permit voltage at setting limits. Voltage variations in electric power supply definitely have adverse effects on different loads. These voltage fluctuations can be caused by several reasons such as voltage surges, overload, lightning, etc. Over voltages are the voltages that beat the normal values which cause insulation loss to electrical appliances leading to short circuits. Likewise, under-voltage causes overloading of the apparatus leading to lamp sparks and ineffective performance of the apparatus. Thus, this article is proposed to give over voltage and under voltage protection.To understand this concept and know it well, one request to go through this concept.
Solar Inverter Currently, the necessity of the solar inverter has been improving day by day. It is a common inverter, but uses energy from the sun that is termed as “solar energy”. This kind of inverter helps in changing the DC-AC uses solar power. In this circuit, the DC power flows in one direction and also assists in supplying current when there is no electricity.DC is used for minor appliances like electronic gadgets, MP3 players, iPod, etc (where there is power stored in the battery). In the case of alternative current (AC) is the power that stores back and forth inside the circuit. Usually, the AC power is used for home appliances. A solar inverter aids several devices that work on DC power to run on AC power so that the worker makes use of the AC power. If you are thinking this inverter is as an alternate to the normal electric one, then it is due to the solar inverter that makes use of the solar energy which is available in sufficient from the Sun and is spotless and also pollution free.
India is the largest democratic country in the world. Active involvement of the public in the formation of the government is an essential aspect of a democratic government. This is confirmed by an election. Conducting elections in a populated country like India is a difficult task. It’s a test to conduct elections for collection of candidates to signify the people of the country at different levels. Even more important is the timely announcement of results. This is required to bring steadiness in the governance and stable financial growth of the nation. To overcome this problem, An EVM (electronic voting machine) is an answer to all these complications. In the worldwide, several countries have shown their interest in learning the mechanism behind this powerful machine. It’s got a very simple interface, its tamper proof, avoids the fake voting and it has helped in receiving rid of the time consuming duty of counting.
Nowadays, farmers in the agriculture field facing a lot of problems in pouring the water into their field to keep their crops green especially in summer season. It’s because they don’t have a proper idea about the power availability. Even it is available, they have to wait until the field is properly watered. Thus, this procedure checks them to stop doing other acts. But, there is a solution, namely “solar powered auto irrigation system”.In the trial of solar power based irrigation system, PV cells are used to produce electricity, that energy is stored in rechargeable batteries.The energy which is produced from the batteries is used for the system operation. A water pump is used to pump the water from a boor well to a water storage tank. This article discusses solar powered irrigation system using solar energy.
This article is a collection of electronics kits for beginners, which can be used as simple projects for engineering students. The following projects can also be used for your beginner, hobbyists.or mini project needs. But, we won’t recommend these projects for your final year project requirements. While choosing the projects, you have to take care with popular circuits which are easy to implement. The logic behind learning electronics for beginners or choosing beginner Btech projects is simple; We advise you go through all the following projects which are practically tested and that will save you a lot of time for troubleshooting. All of these projects fall into the category of beginner, small or hobby and that’s why we used simple electronics for beginners as a title. And you can experiment all these circuits at your own free will and creativity.