This article discusses designing of an optimum energy management system to check the number of persons entering and also exiting a room. Whenever the first person enters into a room electrical load will be automatically turned ON and turned off whenever the last person leaves the room. The proposed system uses infrared sensors in combination with a microcontroller to check all the operations. This system helps in conserving a lot of energy.
Optimum Energy Management System
The hardware and software requirements of the proposed system include power supply block, microcontroller (AT89S52/AT89C51), IR LED, TSOP 1738 Receiver, BC547, 555 TIMER, Relay, Seven Segment Display, LED, 1N4007, Resistors & Capacitors.
Programming Languages: Embedded C, ALP (Assembly Language), Compilers: Keil 2.0/3.0uv and Dumping Software: Using Microcontroller flash Software we are dumping our HEX Code into Micro Controller
Embedded system is a combination of hardware & software, which together forms a component of a larger machine. An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention and may be required to respond to events in real time.
- Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Crystal Frequency 11.0592MHZ
- Three-level Program Memory Lock
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Watchdog Timer
Seven Segment Display
- The segments themselves are identified with lower-case letters “a” through “g,” with the segment “a” at the top and then counting clockwise.
- The LED’S in a seven-segment display are not isolated from each other. Rather, either all of the cathodes or all of the anodes, are connected together into a common lead, while the other end of each LED is individually available.
- This means fewer electrical connections to the package, and also allows us to easily enable or disable a particular digit by controlling the common lead.
- There is no automatic advantage of the common-cathode seven-segment unit over the common-anode version, or vice-versa.Each type lends itself to certain applications, configurations, and logic families.
- The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
- The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages.
- It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
- Whenever base is high, then current starts flowing through base and emitter and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter
- It is an electromagnetic switch
- Used to control the electrical devices
- Copper core magnetic flux plays the main role here
- The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications.
- The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as “The IC Time Machine”.
- Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes, and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8)
Pin Diagram of 555
The 555 timer IC is a simple 8 pin DIL package IC.
- be used as a monostable
- be used as an astable
- source or sink 100mA
- use supply voltages of 5v to 15v
- Disrupt the power supply – use a decoupling capacitor!
- An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength.
- Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly used as sensors.
- The appearance is same as a common LED. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not, unlike a common LED.
- To overcome this problem, the camera on a cell phone can be used. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit.
TSOP 1738 Receiver Pin Diagram
- It’s a standard IR remote control receiver
- Supporting all major transmission codes
- Pin1 – Connected to Ground
- Pin2 – Connected to Vcc
- Pin3 – Output Pin
- In Between 1st Pin and 2nd Pin, we have to connect one Capacitor
- TSOP 1738 Receives 14—bit of data
TSOP 1738 Features
- Photodetector and preamplifier in one package
- Internal filter for PCM frequency
- TTL and CMOS compatibility
- Output active low
- Low power consumption
- High immunity against ambient light
- Continuous data transmission possible (up to 2400 bps)
- Suitable burst length .10 cycles/burst
Project Description Of Optimum Energy Management:
The proposed system is intended to monitor the number of peoples entering as well as leaving a room. Electrical loads are activated as the first person enters and activates when the final person leaves. Infrared sensors used in grouping with a microcontroller to check all the operations. This aids in saving a lot of energy.
There are two couple sensors, each set aside at certain distance from the other. One pair of the sensor comprises of a Tx-transmitter and an Rx-receiver, kept precisely reverse to each other. The transmitting element produces modulated infrared light which is received at the end of the receiver and fed to a microcontroller. When a person enters the room then microcontroller detects with the help of infrared sensors and raises the visitor’s count and shows it on 7-segment display and also activates the load. Similarly, when a person leaves the room, the count of persons gets decremented. When the final person leaves the room, the lamp is gets turned OFF. The operation of the load is handled by a relay which is interfaced to the microcontroller.
Further, the proposed system can be improved with timer arrangement so that if the switching of load doesn’t take place for some reason as preferred, then timer would complete the task after prefixed time
From the above information finally, we can conclude that by using this system, we can manage and reduce energy consumption not only saves money as well as helps in mitigating climate change and enhancing corporate reputation. The proposed system is widely acknowledged as the best solution for the direct and instant reduction of energy consumption. Further any doubts regarding this concept, please give your valuable suggestion by commenting on the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of optimum energy management system?