There are numerous basic electrical and electronic components are normally found in numerous circuits of peripherals like hard disks, mother boards, etc… Several circuits are designed with numerous components like resistors, capacitors, inductors, transistors, transformers, switches and fuses etc. Therefore, this article offers a quick info concerning different types of electronic and electrical components that are utilized in various electronic and electrical projects, embedded systems. Let us see each and every part in detail with diagrams. Resistors, inductors, transformers, battery, fuse.Major Electrical and Electronic Components
The major electrical and electronic components utilized in electrical and electronic projects like resistors, capacitors, fuses, transistors, integrated circuits, relays, switches, motors, circuit breakers, etc. In several circuits, these components are used to build the circuit that is classified into 2 classes such as active components and passive components.
Active and Passive Components
Active components are nothing but, a component that provides and controls energy. Passive components may be outlined as; a component that responds to the flow of voltage and either dissipates or store energy.
A resistor is an electrical component that restricts the flow of a current in a circuit. The electrical device may also be used to afford a particular voltage to a semiconductor. Once current flows through the resistor, the resistor absorbs the voltage and degenerates within the form of heat. Resistors might have variable or mounted resistances that may be found in thermistors, photo resistors, trimmers, potentiometers and hamsters. The current flow through a resistor is directly proportional to the voltage across the resistor terminals. The relationship is pictured by Ohm’s law. Ohm’s law states that dissipation due to the resistance and the units of resistance is ohms.
Ohms law V=IR from this equation, we are able to get I=V/R
Where, ‘V’ is that the voltage of the conductor, ‘I’ is the current through the conductor and ‘R’ is the resistance of the conductor.
A capacitor is a two terminal linear passive component that is made from 2 conductive plates with an insulator between them. The main function of a capacitor is that, it stores voltage once an electrical charge is forced onto its terminals from a power supply. It maintains the charge even when getting disconnected from the power supply. In a timing circuit, a capacitor is employed with a resistor and can also be used as a filter to permit the AC signals and block the DC signals.
The stored electrical charge is Q=CV
Where, “C” is the capacitive reactance and ‘V’ is the applied voltage.
Thus, the current flow through a capacitor is I= C dv/dt
When a DC current is applied across a capacitor, a positive (+) and negative (-) charge builds on a set of terminals. The charge stays till the capacitor is discharged. Once an AC current is applied across a capacitor, a positive and negative charge forms on a set of plates during the part of the cycle when the voltage is positive. When the voltage goes negative (-) in the second half of the cycle, then the capacitor releases before charged current, and then charges the opposite way.
A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit that assembles all the options which are found within the microprocessor. So as to serve different applications, it has a high concentration of on chip amenities like RAM, ROM, timers I/O ports, serial port, interrupt and clock circuit. These are used in numerous automatically controlled devices like remote controls, medical devices, automobile engine control systems, power tools, toys, workplace machines, and different embedded systems. Microcontrollers are used in different electronic project circuits
An inductor or coil or a reactor is a two-terminal passive electrical component, commonly operate of an inductor is that, it stores voltage within the form of magnetic energy. Generally an inductor includes of a conductor, component wound into a coil that works on the principle of Faraday’s law of inductance. Once a current flows through the coil from the left side to the right side, the coil produces a magnetic field within the clockwise direction. The inductance of the inductor is denoted by ‘L’
‘L’ is an inductance
‘K’ is a Nagaoka constant
‘µ’ is a Magnetic permeability
‘N’ is the number of turns of the coils
‘S’ is the Cross section area of the coil
‘I’ is the Length of the coil in axial direction
A transformer is an electrical device and it consists of 2 coils of wire that are joined by an iron core. It offers the much required capability of changing the current and voltage levels simply. The main function of the transformer is that to increase (step-up) or decrease (step-down) AC voltages. The transformer works on the principle of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, that is, mutual inductance between 2 circuits that is linked by a common magnetic flux. Transformer converts an electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit with the help of mutual induction between the 2 windings without electrical connection between them, and also converts power from one circuit to another} circuit without changing the frequency however with a different voltage level.
In a step up transformer, secondary winding contains a lot of winding than the first coil. Returning to a transformer, it has more windings in the primary than the secondary winding. These are one of the main reasons we use AC current in our homes and not DC. DC voltages can’t be modified using transformers. Transformers are out there in several sizes within the market nowadays, starting from little ones to an outsized one.
A battery is an electrical device that is employed to convert chemical energy into voltage through electrochemical discharge reactions. These are composed of one or more cells where each cell having an anode (+), the cathode (-) and the solution. The anode and the cathode are preserved to an electric circuit. Batteries are classified into 2 varieties they are primary or disposable batteries and secondary or rechargeable batteries, whereby the primary batteries don’t seem to be reversible whereas the secondary batteries are reversible.
A fuse is a material or a bit of wire which is employed to protect the components from destruction due to excessive current flowing through them. When excessive current flows through the circuit, the wires get heated up and get broken. As a result, the current stops flowing. When the fuse melts due to overflow of current then, the part of the fuse absorbs some energy. The absorbed energy is given by I2t
Where, ‘I’ is the peak value of the current interrupted
‘t’ is the time taken to clear the fault.
When the fuse blows, it offers a signal that there is some reasonably fault within the circuit. Every type of fuse is designed for an accurate quantity of current. A fuse includes of the main parts a set of contacts, metal-fuse part, connection and support body. A fuse element is made of Zn, copper, silver, aluminum or alloys to afford sure characteristics. That may be swallowed by air or material
Diode/LED (Light Emitting Diode)
A diode is a device, which is made from semiconductor material that allows current to flow in one direction; it blocks the current that tries to travel against the flow in a wire. These devices are often used in several electronic circuits that convert AC to DC. An LED is the alternative of the diode, once a current is applied to an LED; it emits light at a specific frequency. LEDs are utilized in varied applications like keyboards, hard disks, TV remote controls, and these devices are largely helpful as standing indicators in computers also as battery-operated electronics Transistors
The transistor is a device, which consists of 3 terminals, fabricated from semiconductor material that controls the flow of voltage or current and acts as a switch for electronic signals. There are 2 varieties of transistors PNP and NPN, most circuits tend to use NPN semiconductor. Transistors are designed in numerous shapes and the 3 terminals of the semiconductor specifically, the base (B), emitter (E) and collector(C). Where,the base terminal is responsible for activating the transistor, emitter terminal is the negative lead and collector terminal is the positive lead.
The short sort of a form of integrated circuit is IC and sometimes it is additionally known as a chip. The integrated circuit is a semiconductor device, where numerous resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. It will operate as a microprocessor, microchip, amplifier, and timer. An IC is classified as either linear or nonlinear depending on its application. Linear ICs or analog integrated circuits have continuously variable O/P which depends on the level of i/p signal. These linear ICs are used as audio frequency and radio frequency amplifiers. Digital ICs operate at only some defined states, instead of over a continuous vary of signal amplitudes. The applications of integrated circuits involve in computers, modems, computer networks and frequency counters. The basic structure of digital integrated circuits is logic gates, which work with binary knowledge.
Relays are switches, that are used to control the circuits by employing a low power signal. The relays comprise of a magnet, a coil, a series of electrical contacts and a spring. First relays were used as amplifiers in long distance telegraph circuits. There is no electrical connection between the two circuits within the relay, because that is connected through the magnetic connection. Relays are used to perform logical operations in telephone exchanges and computers etc.
A switch is an electrical device which is employed to interrupt the circuit, interrupting the current and to provide the current from one conductor to a different conductor. The switch works with ON and OFF mechanism. Switches are classified into four varieties like (SPST) single pole single throw, (SPDT) single pole double throw, (DPST) double pole single throw and (DPDT)double pole double throw.
A motor is an electrical device and the main function of the motor is that, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The motor contains rotor, stator, bearings, conduit box, enclosure and eye bolt. Electrical motors are all everywhere, from common machines to our most complicated computers. These motors are competent for the tasks which they perform when compared to pneumatic or hydraulic alternatives. Motors are categorized into different types like, AC inductance motors, DC motors, stepper motor, three phase induction motor, brushless magnet electric motor, brushed DC motor, and switched reluctance motor.
A circuit breaker is a mechanical switching device which is operated automatically, which are used to defend an electric circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit the most functions of the circuit breaker is to interrupt current flow and determine a fault condition. It includes of two contacts like moving & mounted contacts. Moving contact is employed to interrupt and create the circuit victimization stored energies in the kind of spring or compressed air. Mounted contact includes a spring that holds the moving contact when closing. These devices accommodate two coils, closing and tripping coil. Wherever closing coil is used to shut the circuit and tripping coil is employed to trip the circuit.
Online Sites for Electrical and Electronic Components
Here is the list of the online stores where you can place an order to buy these components and project kits. These online stores provide completely different choice to place associate order like money on delivery and debit cards or Mastercard payments. Additionally to the current, these online stores deliver the elements and kits by traveler services like communicating, DTD, FedEx etc.
Therefore, these are a number of the essential electrical and electronic components employed in implementing various electronic and electrical projects. We believe that you might have got fulfilled with this text and believe that you just have gotten an inspiration concerning these elements. Excluding this, if you have got any doubts relating to this text or testing these elements in a very sensible circuit and their aggregation procedures, you can give your feedback by commenting within the comment section below.