Traffic jamming is a severe problem in several main cities across the world thus it is felt very important to provide such services to important vehicles. To solve the issue, we have designed a system for a dynamic and automatic density based traffic signal control system and built up a simulation model with codes to help to assemble the framework on equipment. The main goal of this proposed system to solve traffic jamming. It is conceivable to propose dynamic time-based coordination plans where the green signal time of the traffic lights is allocated in view of the current states of traffic. This is accomplished by utilizing 3 sets of IR sensors (Transmitter and Receiver) over the street to screen a specific length/zone while vehicles on a similar zone block the IR light falling on the IR receiver to assume low traffic density. As there are 3 zones just, it is irrelevant if vehicles are stopped next to each other. As it crosses the zone, the green time consequently changes as programmed.
Density Based Traffic Signal with Remote Override in Emergency
The hardware and software requirements of this project include 8051 series Microcontroller, LEDs, Voltage Regulator, Resistors, Capacitors, Crystal, Diodes, a Transformer, IR-LED & Photodiodes, Transistor. RF modules, encoder and decoder ICs, Keil compiler and Language: Embedded C or Assembly.
It is a smaller computer; it has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports.
- Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
- Watchdog Timer
- Dual Data Pointer
An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength.Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly used as sensors.
The appearance is same as a common LED. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not, unlike a common LED.
To overcome this problem, the camera on a cell phone can be used. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit.
A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.
Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.
- The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
- The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages.
- It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
- Whenever base is high, then current starts flowing through base and emitter and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter
Working of Density-Based Dynamic Traffic Signal System Project
The project is intended to design a density-based dynamic traffic signal system having remote override services. Throughout normal time, the timing of signal changes routinely on detecting the traffic density at the crossroads, but in the occurrence of any urgent situation vehicle requiring priority are built in with RF remote control to take priority over the set timing by providing immediate green signal in the desired direction while jamming the other lanes by red signal for some time.
The proposed system using an 8051 family microcontroller which is duly interfaced with sensors, that changes the crossroads timing automatically to hold movement of vehicles smoothly avoiding unnecessary waiting time at the crossroads.
This project can be built with sensors like infrared and photodiodes are in the line of sight configuration across the loads to detect the density of the traffic signal. The density of the vehicles is measured in three zones namely low, medium, high based on which timings are chosen accordingly. The override feature is turned on by an onboard RF transmitter functioned from the emergency vehicle.
Further this project can be enhanced by synchronizing all the traffic junctions in the city by establishing a network among them. The network can be wired or wireless. This synchronization will greatly help in reducing traffic congestion.
Thus, this is all about density based traffic signal with remote override in an emergency. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any queries regarding in implementation of electrical projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of IR LED?