The robot is a machine or electro-mechanical device used for various purposes and the working and controlling of a robot can be done with the help of programming techniques. There are different types of robots are available based on their applications like industrial robots, space robots, military robots, walking robots, domestic robots, climbing robots, and so on. In this article, let us discuss a special type of robotic vehicle namely line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicle. The robotic vehicles like line following, walking and climbing robotic vehicles are special sort of robots designed without a human on board. These robots are operated and controlled by employing various sensor-based control systems. These robots are specially designed in some conditions like where human beings are not capable to go in such as fire accidents, very high or very low temperatures, etc.,
Nowadays, smartphones based on Android OS are definitely the most famous gadgets.These mobile phones are inbuilt with different apps and you can find on the internet which exploits inbuilt hardware like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, to control various devices.The proposed system presents a robot that can be controlled using a running app on an Android-based smartphone. Presented here is Smartphone Operated Robot that can be controlled using an app running on an Android phone. The control commands are sent via Bluetooth and the robot has such features as.
- It can be controlled from Android applications by touch/voice commands
- The speed of the robot can also be measured
- The robot will detect and notify to the phone its distance from the nearer problem
- It will also send information about the direction in which it is moving
Smartphone Operated Robot
Android is an open-source OS (operating system) which means that any maker can use it in their gadgets free of charge. It was constructed to be truly open. For instance, an application can call upon any of the phone’s core functionality like making calls, sending text messages, or using the camera. Android was designed on the open Linux Kernel. Furthermore, it uses a custom virtual machine that was intended to optimize hardware and memory resources in a mobile environment.
Android with Other OS
Android is an open source software, designers can change the OS (operating system) to suit their own needs and phones. This becomes an inexpensive and possible alternative to the manufacturer, as opposed to developing an OS in-house or hiring a software company to do it.
It’s not accessible on all carriers, but this is increasing. The battery is not replaceable which is why all the I Phone users you know have it plugged in all the time as the battery degrades.
Windows Phone is closed-source, which means that it is exclusively developed by the company and sheltered by copyright. The Windows Store is limited as there only a few numbers of apps.
Hardware and Software Requirements
The hardware and software requirements of the Smartphone Operated Robot system include 8051 series Microcontroller, DC motors, Motor Driver IC, Crystal, Resistors, Capacitors, Voltage Regulator, Battery, Robot Body, Bluetooth Module, Keil compiler, Language: Embedded C or Assembly and Android Application.
Android Application Operated Bluetooth
- The Android platform comprises support for the Bluetooth network stack, which lets a device to wireless interchange data with other Bluetooth devices.
- The application framework offers access to the Bluetooth functionality through the Android Bluetooth APIs.
- Super simple & easy way to interface using Bluetooth stack.
- 3.3V Device with standard 5V DC Power source.
- Can also support SPI-Protocol, pins are made available.
- Low cost and Low power consumption.
- It has high-performance wireless transceiver system
- It can be used to interface with PC, Mac or Android phones or tablets.
- Generic Default Visibility at Software side: HC-06 or Linvor
- Default Pairing code is not ‘0000’ but ‘1234’.
- Please use Baud Rate with 8-N-1 connectivity from another device.
- Works with any microcontroller with Serial connectivity.
A microcontroller is a smaller computer, which has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports, etc. The features of this microcontroller include the following.
- Well-matched with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- Strength: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
- Operating Range is 4.0V-5.5V
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz-33 MHz
- Internal RAM: 256 x 8-bit
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- 8-Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
- Watchdog Timer
- Dual Data Pointer
Motor Driver (L293D)
Motor driver IC L293D is a dual H-bridge integrated circuit (IC). In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven concurrently, both in forward & reverse direction. The motor processes of two motors can be controlled by i/p logic at pins 2, 7, 10 and 15. Input logic 00/11 will stop the equivalent motor. Logic 01 & 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions respectively. Enable pins 1 & 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start working. When an enable i/p is high, the related driver gets enabled.
- Wide supply voltage range: 4.5V to 36V
- Separate i/p logic supply
- Internal ESD protection
- Thermal shutdown
- High-Noise-Immunity input
- Functional Substitutions for SGS L293 and SGS L293D
- O/p current 1A/channel (600 mA for L293D)
- Peak o/p current 2 A/channel (1.2 A for L293D)
- o/p clamp diodes for Inductive Transient suppression (L293D)
- A DC motor is an electric device that works on direct current (DC) electricity. In any motor, the process is based on simple electromagnetism.
- A simple two-poles DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a “North” polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a “South” polarization).
- Every DC motor has six basic parts, namely axle, stator, the rotor (a.k.a., armature), field magnet(s), commutator, and brushes.
The TSOP17 series are reduced receivers for IR remote control systems. PIN diode & preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, the epoxy package is designed as IR filter. The demodulated o/p signal can directly be decoded by a microcontroller. This receiver is the standard IR remote control receiver series, supporting all main transmission codes
- Photodetector & preamplifier in one package
- Internal filter for PCM frequency
- Improved protecting against electrical field trouble
- Compatibility of TTL and CMOS
- O/p active low
- Low power consumption
- High protection against ambient light
- Endless data transmission possible up to 2400 bps
- Appropriate burst length is 10 cycles/burst
BC547 (NPN –Transistor)
- The BC547 transistor is an NPN-Epitaxial Si Transistor.
- It is used in general purpose switching & amplification BC847/BC547 series 45V, 100 mA NPN-general purpose transistors.
- The ratio of two currents namely ‘Ic’ and ‘Ib’ is called the DC current gain of the device and is denoted by the symbol of “hfe” or nowadays Beta, (β).
- The current gain from the emitter (E) to the collector terminal (C), Ic/Ie is called Alpha (α), and is a function of the transistor itself.
This Smartphone Operated Robot project is designed to control a robotic vehicle using an android application based device. Bluetooth device is interfaced to the control unit on the robot for detecting the signals transferred by the android application. This data is conveyed to the control unit which transfers the robot as desired. An 8051 series microcontroller is used as a control device.
Remote operation can be done by any android based gadget, upon a Graphical User Interface GUI (GUI) based touch screen operation. Transmitting end uses an android application device remote through which commands are transmitted.
In the Present situation, a Robot is controlled by manual override. Every time a manual action is required to Switch ON and Switch OFF the buttons to control the Robot. So at that time, only Robot is moving according to the manual instruction. Missing the objective that needs to monitor the Robot wirelessly.
Thus, this is all about how to build a Smartphone Operated Robot. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or to implement Android application controlled the remote robot. Please, give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of TSOP1738?
Swarm robotics is a very interesting concept in robotics that depends not on singularly advanced or smart artificial intelligence, but intelligence in numbers. In terms of robotics, it involves mostly simple physical robots that exhibit complex behavior by interaction with each other, or with the environment as a whole. Inspired by the phenomenon observed in some insects, birds and animals called swarm intelligence, swarm robotics uses similar principles, relying on constant feedback and a de-centralized structure. The term ‘swarm’ is generally applied to insects, but can also be used to refer to other animals exhibiting similar behavior. While still in its infancy, swarm robotics has a huge potential in diverse areas, and could fundamentally change how we deal with automation and robotics in general. [Read more…]