This project is designed for the students who can understand the technology used in recent days driverless metro trains which are used in most of the metro cities and developed countries like France, Germany, and Japan etc. These trains are set with the CPU to control the train. This auto metro train is programmed for a precise path. Every station on the lane is defined and also the timing of the train stoppage and distance between the two stations is predefined.
This proposed system doesn’t need any driver because it is an autonomous train. In this project, a microcontroller has been used as CPU. Whenever the train arrives at the platform it stops automatically, as sensed by an infrared sensor. Then the door opens automatically so that the passengers can go on the train, then the door automatically closes after a set time set in the controller by the program.
Auto Metro Train to Shuttle between Stations
In this proposed system, part of this automation tasks are measured, and a microcontroller-based trial product is developed. Actions like traveling through a given lane with predefined stations, sensing the coming at the station and hence, right stopping are executed in the prototype.
The Messages that are matched with the train’s sequence through its path are declared to passengers through a display. In addition, alarm signals are generated as suitable. Controlling of the open and close doors in terms of timings of such actions are measured.
The hardware and software requirements of the proposed system include Microcontroller unit 8051,7-SEGMENT display, IR Led’s, Photo Diodes, Motor Driver L293D, 12v Battery, Crystal Oscillator, Led’s, Buzzer, DC Motors, Diodes, Capacitors, Resistors, and Push Buttons.
Programming Languages (Embedded C, ALP (Assembly Language)), Compilers (Keil 2.0/3.0uv), Dumping Software (Using Microcontroller flash Software we are dumping our HEX Code into Micro Controller)
- A combination of hardware and software which together form a component of a larger machine.
- An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine.
- An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention and may be required to respond to events in real time.
- Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Crystal Frequency 11.0592MHZ
- Three-level Program Memory Lock
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Watchdog Timer
Seven Segment Display
- The segments themselves are identified with lower-case letters “a” through “g,” with the segment “a” at the top and then counting clockwise.
- The LED’S in a seven-segment display are not isolated from each other. Rather, either all of the cathodes or all of the anodes, are connected together into a common lead, while the other end of each LED is individually available.
- This means fewer electrical connections to the package, and also allows us to easily enable or disable a particular digit by controlling the common lead.
- There is no automatic advantage of the common-cathode seven-segment unit over the common-anode version, or vice-versa. Each type lends itself to certain applications, configurations, and logic families.
- The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
- The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages.
- It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
- Whenever basely is high, then current starts flowing through base and emitter and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter
- LEDs are semiconductor devices are made out of silicon
- When current passes through the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light bulbs produce light by heating a metal filament until its white hot
- LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching.
- An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
- The battery has become a common power source for many household, robotics, and industrial applications.
- Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers
- An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength.
- Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly used as sensors.
- The appearance is same as a common LED. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not, unlike a common LED.
- To overcome this problem, the camera on a cell phone can be used. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit.
- A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.
- Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.
Motor Driver L293D
- L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC).
Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal.
- This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.
- L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.
Operation of Motor Driver
- L293D has 2 set of arrangements where one set has input 1, input 2, output 1 and output 2 and another set has input 3, input 4, output 3 and output 4, according to block diagram if pin no 2 & 7 are high then pin no 3 & 6 are also high.
- If enable 1 and pin number 2 are high leaving pin number 7 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable 2 and pin number 10 are high leaving pin number 15 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable 1 and pin number 2 are low leaving pin number 7 as high then the motor rotates in reverse direction.
- If enable 2 and pin number 15 are high leaving pin number 10 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. In an electric motor, the operation is based on simple electromagnetism.
- A simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a “North” polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a “South” polarization).
- Every DC motor has six basic parts — axle, the rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes.
This buzzer is a piezo type audio signaling device, which has a piezo element and an oscillating circuit inside which oscillates the piezo brass base plate, which when given voltage difference produces the sound of a predefined frequency.
Features of Piezo Buzzer
- These high-reliability piezo buzzers are applicable to general electronics equipment.
- Compact, pin terminal type Piezo buzzer with 4 KHz output.
- Pin type terminal construction enables direct mounting onto printed circuit boards.
The proposed system employs an 8051 family microcontroller and for the power source, a battery is used. Four infrared sensors are connected to the microcontroller, in which two IR sensors are used to show two stations and the other two sensors are used to control the train door. Three motors are interfaced with the 8051 family microcontroller through an L293D (motor-driver IC) wherein two motors are employed to control the train movement and the other one is used for controlling the door. A piezo buzzer is used to give an alert to the users, which is interfaced to the microcontroller. A set of seven segment display is interfaced to the microcontroller to display the number count.
Whenever the metro train reaches the station it stops automatically activated by the sensors. Then, the train door opens routinely, such that the travelers can get in the train. After that, the door closes after a set time as per the microcontroller program. It also counts the number of passengers departure and incoming the train by sensing the IR break of the sensors and displays that on the 7-segment display.
This project in upcoming can be improved by making it more advanced by showing the status of the train on an LCD screen, which is due for entrance and exit for the convenience of the waiting passengers.
At the present time accidents of trains is rising day by day. Of these main disasters are happening due to human mistakes. A man can do a fault but an automatic processor doesn’t have a possibility of doing error. This is the major reason behind this project.This is a highly superior technology which is now used in developed nations. By using this auto metro train, the train timings will be correct and it keeps away from a lot of problem with the passengers.
This project will very much reduce the human interference in the trains controlling and hence saves a lot of money and time. Thus the project is greatly useful in all aspects. Furthermore, any queries please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the programming languages used in this project?