In the present situation, the demand for high voltage production exists huge, but regrettably there are some techniques like conventional are not reaching the current demand. Transformers are being used for the high voltage AC generation which has to be rectified to DC. This technique is both bulky as well as expensive. The proposed system could be capable in both the ways. Here we are producing high voltage DC with the help of basic components like capacitors and diodes. With the amplify in flowing very high voltages can be attained. Even though it is common in several electronic circuits to employ a voltage transformer to amplify a voltage, sometimes an appropriate step-up transformer required for high-voltage applications may not always be obtainable. One other method is to employ a diode voltage multiplier circuit which boosts the voltage without the utilize of a transformer.
The auto power supply control system is a very well-situated system for the customers who want to achieve UPS (uninterruptible power supply) from various sources like solar, generator main, and inverter. If we see it at a profitable level, then we can guess that there are many customers which have the machines whose necessities is only UPS. Such as the database corporations whose all work is done on a PC, then it is needed a UPS all the time, otherwise, their PC could be off throughout the time when the load is moved on another source. To overcome these problems, here we are having a system, namely “Auto Power Supply Control System”. There are several companies are working on this project with a help of power relays, magnetic contacts. But these systems are expensive and do not offer precise UPS. Here the proposed system can be built with power electronics components, microcontroller, and relays.
The remote monitoring of transformer or generator health over the internet is one kind of system that can be used for the instantaneous data monitoring of transformer (or) generator through the internet. As we know that, the transformer and generator are the most important electrical equipment’s in every power system. If anyone of these can damage due to some reasons like current, temperature, voltage then the entire supply would be turned off. Then both the time and money would be a waste. So the real-time monitor of these two is compulsory for providing the level supply to the customer. There are many researchers are working on this to protect and monitor the expensive equipment. This article gives an overview of remote monitoring of transformer or generator health over internet using microcontroller.
RFID based Car Parking System is a simple project that offers an efficient car parking management system with the help of RFID Technology. Car parking management in organizations and malls often consists of many tasks like issuing tokens, noting the check-in and checkout time, calculating fare and finally collecting the amount. As the number of vehicles is increasing, the problems faced by a manual parking management system are also increasing. Such problems can be eliminated to some extent by implementing an intelligent parking system where the entry and exit of cars are monitored and payment is made easy with sensor technology. This project deals with an interesting manner of security access based car parking system using an AT89C51 microcontroller and RFID Technology.
As the nonsustainable power source assets are diminishing, utilization of inexhaustible assets for delivering power is expanding. Solar panels are winding up the more popular day by day. The solar panel retains the vitality from the Sun and is put away in the battery. This vitality can be used when required. Use of the vitality stored in the batteries is given in the below application. Solar panels must absorb solar energy to a maximum amount. This should be possible just if the panels are constantly put towards Sun bearing. So solar panel ought to persistently turn toward the Sun. This article depicts sun tracking solar panel and its working.
These Solid State Switches are phase controlled in a similar manner to a light dimmer, in that they are turned on for a part of each cycle. The average voltage is controlled by varying the conduction angle of the switches. Increasing the conduction angle will increase the average output voltage. Controlling the average output voltage by means of solid state switches has a number of advantages. One of the major advantages being the vast improvement in efficiency relative to the primary resistance starter, due to its low on-state voltage of the solid state switches.
Time Delay can be is defined as the controlled phase between the operations of two events. A Time Delay relay is a blend of a control circuit and an electromechanical output relay. The control circuit can be built with solid state components as well as timing circuits which controls the operation of the relay & timing range. Time delay relays have a wide range of timing choices from less than one second to many days. There are a lot of choices of timing varies from DIP switches, calibrated external knobs, recessed potentiometer, or thumbwheel switches. A circuit is intended to activate a load after a certain delay. A time delay is a relay that waits on for a certain amount of time once activated. This is made up of a simple variable timer circuit which controls the actual relay. The time is modifiable from 0 to about 200 seconds but can be amplified by increasing the time constant of the mono-stable created out of 555 timers.
Time Delay Based Relay Operated Load
The time delay based relay operated load can be built with LED, push buttons, resistor, capacitor, 555 timers, 1N4007, BC547, battery, and relay.
An embedded system can be defined as; it is a combination of software and hardware which as one form a module of a larger machine. The best example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is intended to run on its own without human interference and may be necessary to react to actions in real time.
LED is a semiconductor device which is made out of Si (silicon). When the flow of current supplies through the LED it produces photons as a byproduct. Standard light bulbs generate light by heating a metal filament until its white-hot LEDs present several advantages over usual light sources with lower energy utilization, improved strength, longer lifetime, lesser size and quicker switching.
- The BC547 transistor is a general purpose, NPN epitaxial silicon transistor, and it is available in small plastic packages. The applications of this transistor mainly involve in general-purpose switching, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors, and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V.
- When the base terminal is high, then the current flow starts flowing through base and emitter terminals and after that only flow of current will pass from collector terminal to emitter terminal.
The 555 Timer IC is a chip, used to implement a range of timer and multivibrator applications. The unique name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as “The IC Time Machine”. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8).
Pin Diagram of 555
- The 555 timer IC is a simple 8 pin DIL package IC.
- It can be used as a monostable, an astable, source or sink 100mA, use supply voltages of 5v to 15v, disrupt the power supply – use a decoupling capacitor!
- An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
- The battery has become a common power source for many household, robotics, and industrial applications.
- Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers
- It is an electromagnetic switch, used to control the electrical devices
- Copper core magnetic flux plays the main role here
The project is intended to design a time delay based switch to manage any load. A 555 IC timer is used in a monostable mode to make a relay to turn ON/OFF a load for the set time period.
A time delay based relay that stays on for a certain period of time once activated. This circuit is made up of a simple adjustable timer circuit which controls the actual relay.
The adjustability of time can be done from 0 to few seconds but can be amplified by increasing the stable time of the monostable 555-timer. The ability of current handling of the load is restricted by the type of relay used. The proposed system uses a lamp as a load.
Thus, this is all about the time delay based relay operated load. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this topic or to implement any electronics projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of time delay based relay?
The main objective of this project is to design a microcontroller based system to control a computer mouse with an IR remote. To achieve the task we have used a TV remote, a microcontroller, an IR receiver. For interfacing the system with PC, we have selected USB interfacing. This circuit is simple and easy to understand. We have tried to make the project user-friendly as much as we can. It is well-suited in almost all PC with operating systems like Windows Vista, Microsoft® Windows XP, and Windows 7. This article discusses a cordless mouse for the PC using TV remote.
The war field spying robot can be used on enemy territories for the purpose of spying or remote monitoring. This spying robot can be used at the time of war to collect and monitor the information from the terrorists at the far secure area, and safely create a map for the counter-attack. Let us have a brief information about how can we use a robot in the field of war for the purpose of spying. All that is required is a wireless camera fixed on the robot circuit which captures images and also records the videos of terrorists and transmits the data, which are collected by the receiver unit of the TV. We can design a simple prototype of this robot which can control remotely and the data transmitted by the camera can be monitored and analyzed on a TV.
War Field Spying Robot with Night Vision Wireless Camera
The hardware and software requirements of this project include 8051 series Microcontroller, DC Motors, Motor driver IC, Push Button, Diodes, Resistors, Capacitors, Wireless Camera, Bluetooth Device, Keil compiler, Language: Embedded C or Assembly and Android Application.
The microcontroller is a smaller computer; it has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports. The features of this microcontroller include the following.
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
What is Called Android?
Android is an open-source operating system which means that any manufacturer can use it in their phones free of charge. It was built to be truly open. For example, an application can call upon any of the phone’s core functionality such as making calls, sending text messages, or using the camera. Android is built on the open Linux Kernel. Furthermore, it utilizes a custom virtual machine that was designed to optimize memory and hardware resources in a mobile environment.
What is an Android Application for Mobile Phones?
An android app is meant for phones with android based operating systems. They can be downloaded from the Android app Market which is pre-loaded on every android phone. Blue control APP and Bluetooth SPP APP are some examples.
The open source operating system is easily changed, hacked, manipulated, and molded to fit whatever functionality you had in mind. Found on all platforms for all prices depending on what hardware and software version you are interested in. The battery is usually replaceable.
Android Application Operated Bluetooth
The Android platform includes support for the Bluetooth network stack, which allows a device to wirelessly exchange data with other Bluetooth devices.The application framework provides access to the Bluetooth functionality through the Android Bluetooth APIs.
Features of Bluetooth
- Super simple and easy way to interface using Bluetooth stack.
- 3.3V device with standard 5V DC Power source.
- Can also support SPI Protocol, pins are made available.
- Low power consumption, Low cost.
- Has high-performance wireless transceiver system
- Can be used to interface with PC, Mac or Android phones/tablets.
- Generic Default Visibility at Software side: HC-06 or Linvor
- Default Pairing code is not ‘0000’ but ‘1234’.
- Please use Baud Rate with 8-N-1 connectivity from another device.
- Works with any microcontroller with Serial connectivity.
RF Remote Control
- The circuit uses HT 12E, HT 12D encoder, and decoder.
- 433MHz ASK transmitter and receiver is used for the remote control.
Features of RF
- Range in open space (Standard Conditions) 100 Meters
- RX Receiver Frequency: 433 MHz
- RX Typical Sensitivity: 105 Dbm
- RX Supply Current: 3.5 mA
- RX IF Frequency: 1MHz
- Low Power Consumption
- Easy For Application
- RX Operating Voltage: 5V
- TX Frequency Range: 433.92 MHz
- TX Supply Voltage: 3V ~ 6V
- TX Out Put Power: 4 ~ 12 Dbm
RF Encoder & Decoder
- The HT12E Encoder ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for Remote Control system applications. They are capable of Encoding 12 bit of information which consists of N address bits and 12-N data bits.
- The HT12D ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications.
- These ICs are paired with each other. For proper operation, a pair of encoder or decoder with the same no.of address and data format should be selected.
- The Decoder receives the serial address and data from its corresponding decoder, transmitted by a carrier using an RF transmission medium and gives output to the output pins after processing the data.
- The wireless camera detects and scans all the common video frequencies, usually somewhere between 50 MHz and 30 GHz, within a certain radius.
- It then allows the user to monitor what is being broadcast on those frequencies, if the signal is strong enough, the wireless camera detectors usually display the images.
Motor Driver L293D
- L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC).
Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal.
- This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.
- L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.
Operation of Motor Driver
- L293D has 2 set of arrangements where one set has input 1, input 2, output 1 and output 2 and another set has input 3, input 4, output 3 and output 4, according to block diagram if pin no 2 & 7 are high then pin no 3 & 6 are also high.
- If enable-1 and pin number 2 are high leaving pin number 7 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable-2 and pin number 10 are high leaving pin number 15 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable 1 and pin number 2 are low leaving pin number 7 as high then the motor rotates in reverse direction.
- If enable 2 and pin number 15 are high leaving pin number 10 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- Streaming of Video without visible light
- Inbuilt option to switch ON & OFF IR lights when required
- The limited distance of operation(50ft)
- The video is Streaming not recording
The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle using android application for remote operation. This robot along with camera can wirelessly transmit real-time video with night vision capabilities. This is kind of robot can be helpful for spying purpose in war fields.
The whole path that the robot traverse is being seen by the wireless night vision camera that is placed on the robot and accordingly the video signals are sent by the camera for the direction it traversed. Remote operation is achieved by any smart-phone/Tablet etc., with Android OS, upon a GUI (Graphical User Interface) based touch screen operation.
From the above information, finally, we can conclude that this robot is used for the observation of human activities in the war field o in order to reduce infiltrations from the opponent side. The robot comprises of night vision wireless camera which can transmit the information of the war field in order to stop any harm to human life. The robot will provide a suitable machine for the security sector and will also stop illegal activities. It will assist all the military people and armed forces to know the situation of the territory before entering it.
Traffic jamming is a severe problem in several main cities across the world thus it is felt very important to provide such services to important vehicles. To solve the issue, we have designed a system for a dynamic and automatic density based traffic signal control system and built up a simulation model with codes to help to assemble the framework on equipment. The main goal of this proposed system to solve traffic jamming. It is conceivable to propose dynamic time-based coordination plans where the green signal time of the traffic lights is allocated in view of the current states of traffic. This is accomplished by utilizing 3 sets of IR sensors (Transmitter and Receiver) over the street to screen a specific length/zone while vehicles on a similar zone block the IR light falling on the IR receiver to assume low traffic density. As there are 3 zones just, it is irrelevant if vehicles are stopped next to each other. As it crosses the zone, the green time consequently changes as programmed.