A 4 quadrant DC motor control operation is necessary for industrial as well as marketable applications. These applications need both driving and braking that means motoring and generating ability. Some of these applications comprise lifts, cranes, electric traction systems, engine test loading systems, and cable laying winders. The different quadrant processes drive the motor with usual as well as the turnaround of both voltage and currents so as to run as well as to crack the motor either in any directions. Let us discuss an Arduino board based 4 quadrant dc motor control operations in brief.
Arduino based 4 Quadrant DC Motor Control
The hardware and software requirements of this project include Arduino develop the board, Crystal, DC Motor, Motor Driver IC, LED, Resistors, Capacitors, Diodes, Transformer, Voltage Regulator, Push Buttons., Arduino software and Language: Arduino programming language.
A combination of a hardware and software together form a component of a larger machine. An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention and may be required to respond to events in real time.
The Arduino microcontroller is an easy to use yet powerful single board computer that has gained considerable traction in the hobby and professional market. The Arduino is open-source, which means the hardware is reasonably priced and development software is free.
Features of Arduino
- The Duemalinove board features an Atmel ATmega328 microcontroller operating at 5 V with 2 Kb of RAM, 32 Kb of flash memory for storing programs and 1 Kb of EEPROM for storing parameters.
- The clock speed is 16 MHz, which translates to about executing about 300,000 lines of C source code per second.
- The Arduino programming language is a simplified version of C/C++. If you know C, programming the Arduino will be familiar.
- If you do not know C, no need to worry as only a few commands are needed to perform useful functions.
Four Quadrant Operation of DC Motor
Four Quadrant Operation of DC motor means that the machine works in 4 quadrants namely Forward motoring, Forward Braking, Reverse motoring and Reverse braking. A motor works in two modes such as Motoring and Braking. A motor drive capable of operating in both directions of rotation and of producing both motoring and regeneration is called a Four Quadrant variable speed drive.
In the 1st quadrant (forward motoring), power developed is positive and the machine is working as a motor supplying mechanical energy. Second quadrant operation is called as Braking. In this, the rotation’s direction is positive, and the torque is -ve, and therefore, the machine works as a generator developing a -ve torque, which resists the motion.
The kinetic energy (KE) of the turning parts is obtainable as electrical energy which may be supplied back to the mains. The 3rd quadrant process is called as the reverse motoring. In this, motor works in the reverse direction. Both the speed & the torque have -ve values whereas the power is positive.
In the 4th quadrant, the speed is negative and the torque is positive. This quadrant communicates to braking in the reverse motoring mode.
Motor Driver L293D
L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.
Operation of Motor Driver
L293D has 2 set of arrangements where one set has input 1, input 2, output 1 and output 2 and another set has input 3, input 4, output 3 and output 4, according to block diagram if pin no 2 & 7 are high then pin no 3 & 6 are also high. If enable 1 and pin number 2 are high leaving pin number 7 as low then the motor rotates in forwarding direction. If enable 2 and pin number 10 are high leaving pin number 15 as low then the motor rotates in forwarding direction.
If enable 1 and pin number 2 are low leaving pin number 7 as high then the motor rotates in reverse direction. If enable 2 and pin number 15 are high leaving pin number 10 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. In an electric motor, the operation is based on simple electromagnetism.
- A simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a “North” polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a “South” polarization).
- Every DC motor has six basic parts — axle, a rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes.
Working of Arduino Based 4 Quadrant DC Motor Control
- The aim of this project is four quadrant speed control of the DC motor.
- The motor is operated in four quadrants viz, clockwise; counter clock-wise, instantaneous forward brake, and instantaneous reverse brake. The speed of DC motor is directly proportional to the DC voltage applied across its terminals.
- Hence, if we control the voltage applied across its terminal, we actually can control its speed.
- Instantaneous brake happens as a result of applying a reverse voltage across the running motor for a brief period.
Thus, this is all about 4 quadrant DC motor using an Arduino and its working. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept or to implement any DC motor based projects please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of 4 quadrant DC motor?