These Solid State Switches are phase controlled in a similar manner to a light dimmer, in that they are turned on for a part of each cycle. The average voltage is controlled by varying the conduction angle of the switches. Increasing the conduction angle will increase the average output voltage. Controlling the average output voltage by means of solid state switches has a number of advantages. One of the major advantages being the vast improvement in efficiency relative to the primary resistance starter, due to its low on-state voltage of the solid state switches.
Time Delay can be is defined as the controlled phase between the operations of two events. A Time Delay relay is a blend of a control circuit and an electromechanical output relay. The control circuit can be built with solid state components as well as timing circuits which controls the operation of the relay & timing range. Time delay relays have a wide range of timing choices from less than one second to many days. There are a lot of choices of timing varies from DIP switches, calibrated external knobs, recessed potentiometer, or thumbwheel switches. A circuit is intended to activate a load after a certain delay. A time delay is a relay that waits on for a certain amount of time once activated. This is made up of a simple variable timer circuit which controls the actual relay. The time is modifiable from 0 to about 200 seconds but can be amplified by increasing the time constant of the mono-stable created out of 555 timers.
Time Delay Based Relay Operated Load
The time delay based relay operated load can be built with LED, push buttons, resistor, capacitor, 555 timers, 1N4007, BC547, battery, and relay.
An embedded system can be defined as; it is a combination of software and hardware which as one form a module of a larger machine. The best example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is intended to run on its own without human interference and may be necessary to react to actions in real time.
LED is a semiconductor device which is made out of Si (silicon). When the flow of current supplies through the LED it produces photons as a byproduct. Standard light bulbs generate light by heating a metal filament until its white-hot LEDs present several advantages over usual light sources with lower energy utilization, improved strength, longer lifetime, lesser size and quicker switching.
- The BC547 transistor is a general purpose, NPN epitaxial silicon transistor, and it is available in small plastic packages. The applications of this transistor mainly involve in general-purpose switching, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors, and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V.
- When the base terminal is high, then the current flow starts flowing through base and emitter terminals and after that only flow of current will pass from collector terminal to emitter terminal.
The 555 Timer IC is a chip, used to implement a range of timer and multivibrator applications. The unique name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as “The IC Time Machine”. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8).
Pin Diagram of 555
- The 555 timer IC is a simple 8 pin DIL package IC.
- It can be used as a monostable, an astable, source or sink 100mA, use supply voltages of 5v to 15v, disrupt the power supply – use a decoupling capacitor!
- An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
- The battery has become a common power source for many household, robotics, and industrial applications.
- Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers
- It is an electromagnetic switch, used to control the electrical devices
- Copper core magnetic flux plays the main role here
The project is intended to design a time delay based switch to manage any load. A 555 IC timer is used in a monostable mode to make a relay to turn ON/OFF a load for the set time period.
A time delay based relay that stays on for a certain period of time once activated. This circuit is made up of a simple adjustable timer circuit which controls the actual relay.
The adjustability of time can be done from 0 to few seconds but can be amplified by increasing the stable time of the monostable 555-timer. The ability of current handling of the load is restricted by the type of relay used. The proposed system uses a lamp as a load.
Thus, this is all about the time delay based relay operated load. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this topic or to implement any electronics projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of time delay based relay?
The main objective of this project is to design a microcontroller based system to control a computer mouse with an IR remote. To achieve the task we have used a TV remote, a microcontroller, an IR receiver. For interfacing the system with PC, we have selected USB interfacing. This circuit is simple and easy to understand. We have tried to make the project user-friendly as much as we can. It is well-suited in almost all PC with operating systems like Windows Vista, Microsoft® Windows XP, and Windows 7. This article discusses a cordless mouse for the PC using TV remote.
Android operated home automation using Bluetooth device is a good combination of mobile technology as well as the embedded system. The user can manage Home appliances using Android device by installing on his/her Android mobile phone to control different home appliances. The user can send control signals using that application. This project comprises a Bluetooth receiver, which is connected to the circuit and it has a decoder. This decoder sends a code for the individual signal sent by the user. Then the particular load connected to the circuit will be activated depending on the signal given. At the output side of this project, we have connected 5 relays and a buzzer as a load.
A 4 quadrant DC motor control operation is necessary for industrial as well as marketable applications. These applications need both driving and braking that means motoring and generating ability. Some of these applications comprise lifts, cranes, electric traction systems, engine test loading systems, and cable laying winders. The different quadrant processes drive the motor with usual as well as the turnaround of both voltage and currents so as to run as well as to crack the motor either in any directions. Let us discuss an Arduino board based 4 quadrant dc motor control operations in brief.
Automation system is mostly depending upon the power systems in industrial, residential or commercial, which needs remote controlling and monitoring. By employing wireless technologies, it is more competent to execute a suitable technology depending upon the requirements of the proposed system like speed, cost, and distance.
For distant controlling and monitoring of different loads and by means of efficient power usage through real time power spending with the help of a PC based graphical user interface application. The progress of technology equipments is becoming simpler and easier for us. Automated systems have more benefits over manual system. PC based electrical load controlled systems are highly reliable, precise and time conserving systems. They give number of features like rapid data storage, transfer data and data securities.
The war field spying robot can be used on enemy territories for the purpose of spying or remote monitoring. This spying robot can be used at the time of war to collect and monitor the information from the terrorists at the far secure area, and safely create a map for the counter-attack. Let us have a brief information about how can we use a robot in the field of war for the purpose of spying. All that is required is a wireless camera fixed on the robot circuit which captures images and also records the videos of terrorists and transmits the data, which are collected by the receiver unit of the TV. We can design a simple prototype of this robot which can control remotely and the data transmitted by the camera can be monitored and analyzed on a TV.
War Field Spying Robot with Night Vision Wireless Camera
The hardware and software requirements of this project include 8051 series Microcontroller, DC Motors, Motor driver IC, Push Button, Diodes, Resistors, Capacitors, Wireless Camera, Bluetooth Device, Keil compiler, Language: Embedded C or Assembly and Android Application.
The microcontroller is a smaller computer; it has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports. The features of this microcontroller include the following.
- 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
- 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
- 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
- 32 Programmable I/O Lines
- Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
- Eight Interrupt Sources
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
What is Called Android?
Android is an open-source operating system which means that any manufacturer can use it in their phones free of charge. It was built to be truly open. For example, an application can call upon any of the phone’s core functionality such as making calls, sending text messages, or using the camera. Android is built on the open Linux Kernel. Furthermore, it utilizes a custom virtual machine that was designed to optimize memory and hardware resources in a mobile environment.
What is an Android Application for Mobile Phones?
An android app is meant for phones with android based operating systems. They can be downloaded from the Android app Market which is pre-loaded on every android phone. Blue control APP and Bluetooth SPP APP are some examples.
The open source operating system is easily changed, hacked, manipulated, and molded to fit whatever functionality you had in mind. Found on all platforms for all prices depending on what hardware and software version you are interested in. The battery is usually replaceable.
Android Application Operated Bluetooth
The Android platform includes support for the Bluetooth network stack, which allows a device to wirelessly exchange data with other Bluetooth devices.The application framework provides access to the Bluetooth functionality through the Android Bluetooth APIs.
Features of Bluetooth
- Super simple and easy way to interface using Bluetooth stack.
- 3.3V device with standard 5V DC Power source.
- Can also support SPI Protocol, pins are made available.
- Low power consumption, Low cost.
- Has high-performance wireless transceiver system
- Can be used to interface with PC, Mac or Android phones/tablets.
- Generic Default Visibility at Software side: HC-06 or Linvor
- Default Pairing code is not ‘0000’ but ‘1234’.
- Please use Baud Rate with 8-N-1 connectivity from another device.
- Works with any microcontroller with Serial connectivity.
RF Remote Control
- The circuit uses HT 12E, HT 12D encoder, and decoder.
- 433MHz ASK transmitter and receiver is used for the remote control.
Features of RF
- Range in open space (Standard Conditions) 100 Meters
- RX Receiver Frequency: 433 MHz
- RX Typical Sensitivity: 105 Dbm
- RX Supply Current: 3.5 mA
- RX IF Frequency: 1MHz
- Low Power Consumption
- Easy For Application
- RX Operating Voltage: 5V
- TX Frequency Range: 433.92 MHz
- TX Supply Voltage: 3V ~ 6V
- TX Out Put Power: 4 ~ 12 Dbm
RF Encoder & Decoder
- The HT12E Encoder ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for Remote Control system applications. They are capable of Encoding 12 bit of information which consists of N address bits and 12-N data bits.
- The HT12D ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications.
- These ICs are paired with each other. For proper operation, a pair of encoder or decoder with the same no.of address and data format should be selected.
- The Decoder receives the serial address and data from its corresponding decoder, transmitted by a carrier using an RF transmission medium and gives output to the output pins after processing the data.
- The wireless camera detects and scans all the common video frequencies, usually somewhere between 50 MHz and 30 GHz, within a certain radius.
- It then allows the user to monitor what is being broadcast on those frequencies, if the signal is strong enough, the wireless camera detectors usually display the images.
Motor Driver L293D
- L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC).
Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal.
- This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.
- L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.
Operation of Motor Driver
- L293D has 2 set of arrangements where one set has input 1, input 2, output 1 and output 2 and another set has input 3, input 4, output 3 and output 4, according to block diagram if pin no 2 & 7 are high then pin no 3 & 6 are also high.
- If enable-1 and pin number 2 are high leaving pin number 7 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable-2 and pin number 10 are high leaving pin number 15 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- If enable 1 and pin number 2 are low leaving pin number 7 as high then the motor rotates in reverse direction.
- If enable 2 and pin number 15 are high leaving pin number 10 as low then the motor rotates in the forward direction.
- Streaming of Video without visible light
- Inbuilt option to switch ON & OFF IR lights when required
- The limited distance of operation(50ft)
- The video is Streaming not recording
The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle using android application for remote operation. This robot along with camera can wirelessly transmit real-time video with night vision capabilities. This is kind of robot can be helpful for spying purpose in war fields.
The whole path that the robot traverse is being seen by the wireless night vision camera that is placed on the robot and accordingly the video signals are sent by the camera for the direction it traversed. Remote operation is achieved by any smart-phone/Tablet etc., with Android OS, upon a GUI (Graphical User Interface) based touch screen operation.
From the above information, finally, we can conclude that this robot is used for the observation of human activities in the war field o in order to reduce infiltrations from the opponent side. The robot comprises of night vision wireless camera which can transmit the information of the war field in order to stop any harm to human life. The robot will provide a suitable machine for the security sector and will also stop illegal activities. It will assist all the military people and armed forces to know the situation of the territory before entering it.
Traffic jamming is a severe problem in several main cities across the world thus it is felt very important to provide such services to important vehicles. To solve the issue, we have designed a system for a dynamic and automatic density based traffic signal control system and built up a simulation model with codes to help to assemble the framework on equipment. The main goal of this proposed system to solve traffic jamming. It is conceivable to propose dynamic time-based coordination plans where the green signal time of the traffic lights is allocated in view of the current states of traffic. This is accomplished by utilizing 3 sets of IR sensors (Transmitter and Receiver) over the street to screen a specific length/zone while vehicles on a similar zone block the IR light falling on the IR receiver to assume low traffic density. As there are 3 zones just, it is irrelevant if vehicles are stopped next to each other. As it crosses the zone, the green time consequently changes as programmed.
An every Embedded system needs an RPS (regulated power supply), and the circuit of this power supply gives a changeable regulated supply and turns off in the no-load situation. During an arrangement of the voltage regulator, potentiometer and the o/p voltage is changed from 3.7volts to 8.7volts.This power supply has another feature that is, when there is no load then it automatically switches off. This process will be achieved by an arrangement of relay and transistors.
Self-Switching Power Supply
The hardware requirements of the self-switching power supply include a transformer, rectifier, filter, regulator, relay, a transistor (BC547, BC557), Resistor, Capacitor, 1N4007.
Step down Transformer
- Step down transformers secondary voltage is less than its primary voltage
- It is mainly designed to reduce the voltage from the primary winding to the secondary winding
- The transformer changes the high voltage, low current power into low voltage, high current power
Transistor (BC547, BC557)
- The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
- The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages.
- It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
- Whenever base is high, then current starts flowing through base and emitter and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter
- The BC557 transistor is a PNP Epitaxial Silicon Transistor
- The BC557 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages. It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA PNP general-purpose transistors.
A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four or more diodes arranged in the form of which gives the same output polarity for either i/p polarity. It is employed for altering an alternating current input into a direct current output.
A filter is a capacitor which filters out a certain frequency from a circuit. Generally, capacitors can be used to filter out very low-frequency signals. These signals are very near to 0Hz in the value of frequency, which is referred to as DC signals.
LM7805 Voltage Regulator
A voltage regulator 7805 is used to maintain the level of voltage automatically. It is a part of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The series xx in 78 indicates the fixed o/p voltage it is designed to provide. It provides +5V RPS (regulated power supply).
A relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a small electric current. The main purpose of the relay is to control the movement of the gate. It is used to control the electrical devices. A relay is able to control an o/p circuit of higher power than i/p circuit.
The circuit of a regulated power supply (RPS through a fixed-voltage regulator provides features like a variable and switch off This is attained by connecting a potentiometer among common regulator IC terminal and GND. For every 100 ohm increase in the value of in-circuit the potentiometer resistance, the o/p voltage increases by 1 volt. Thus, the o/p changes from 3.7V-8.7V.Another significant feature of the supply is that it turns off itself when no load is connected to its o/p terminals.
This is attained with the help of transistors, diodes, and capacitor. When a load is connected to the o/p, the potential drop across diodes is enough for transistors to perform. As a result, the relay gets activated and remains in that state as long as the load remains connected. At the same time, capacitor gets charged to around 7-8 volt potential through the transistor. But when the load is detached, the transistor is cut off. But, the capacitor is still charged and it begins discharging through the base of the transistor.
After some time, the relay is de-energized, which turns off the mains input primary of the transformer.To restart the power again, switch Push button should be pushed momentarily. Upper the value of capacitor more will be the delay in turning off the supply on detachment of the load and vice versa.
A transformer with a secondary voltage (12V-0V, 250mA) was used, it can yet be changed as per requirement. For drawing more than 300mA current, the regulator IC should be built-in with a small heatsink above a mica insulator. When the secondary voltage of transformer increases beyond 12V (RMS), potentiometer must be re-dimensioned. Also, the voltage of relay rating should be prearranged.
Self-Switching Power Supply Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages and disadvantages of self-switching power supply include the following
- It is used as a protector for electronic circuits
- It can get different voltages
- Perform as a protector for monitors
- Not expensive
- If once the supply breaks then it is powered manually
Self-Switching Power Supply Applications
- Self-switching power supply circuit can be used in different electronic types of equipment as the supply voltage.
- This circuit is used for damage fewer uses.
- By using this circuit we can generate various voltages
Almost all electronic equipment comprises a circuit that alters AC voltage of main supply into DC voltage. This portion of the equipment is termed as a power supply. Generally, at the power supply input, there is a power transformer. A diode circuit named rectifier follows it. The o/p of the rectifier goes to a smoothing filter and then to a voltage regulator circuit.
The rectifier is an essential component in the power supply. This is used a variable one and this circuit is useful in various electronic experimental applications. If you have any queries regarding this concept or to implement any electrical projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you,
Power electronics is an interdisciplinary innovation used to change the attributes of the electrical power circuit such as voltage, current, frequency, and size that suit for a specific application. Power electronics can be connected in various zones: medical equipment, transportation and utilities including distinctive sub-frameworks like strong state transformer, line transformer, strong state electrical switch; and, purchaser items like media transmission types of gear, apparatuses, lighting frameworks, modern and business gadgets and types of gear. Power electronics is additionally a subject applicable to examine for electrical and electronic engineering arrangements with configuration, control, and calculation of non-direct time variation electronic frameworks.
Power electronics assumes the main part of current innovation by going about as a center of energy and vitality control. A large portion of the shopper electronic gadgets makes utilization of the AC-DC converter as a power electronic gadget with numerous battery chargers and PCs. This article discusses of UPFC related display of lag and lead power factor.