India is the largest democratic country in the world. Active involvement of the public in the formation of the government is an essential aspect of a democratic government. This is confirmed by an election. Conducting elections in a populated country like India is a difficult task. It’s a test to conduct elections for collection of candidates to signify the people of the country at different levels. Even more important is the timely announcement of results. This is required to bring steadiness in the governance and stable financial growth of the nation. To overcome this problem, An EVM (electronic voting machine) is an answer to all these complications. In the worldwide, several countries have shown their interest in learning the mechanism behind this powerful machine. It’s got a very simple interface, its tamper proof, avoids the fake voting and it has helped in receiving rid of the time consuming duty of counting.
Nowadays, farmers in the agriculture field facing a lot of problems in pouring the water into their field to keep their crops green especially in summer season. It’s because they don’t have a proper idea about the power availability. Even it is available, they have to wait until the field is properly watered. Thus, this procedure checks them to stop doing other acts. But, there is a solution, namely “solar powered auto irrigation system”.In the trial of solar power based irrigation system, PV cells are used to produce electricity, that energy is stored in rechargeable batteries.The energy which is produced from the batteries is used for the system operation. A water pump is used to pump the water from a boor well to a water storage tank. This article discusses solar powered irrigation system using solar energy.
This article is a collection of electronics kits for beginners, which can be used as simple projects for engineering students. The following projects can also be used for your beginner, hobbyists.or mini project needs. But, we won’t recommend these projects for your final year project requirements. While choosing the projects, you have to take care with popular circuits which are easy to implement. The logic behind learning electronics for beginners or choosing beginner Btech projects is simple; We advise you go through all the following projects which are practically tested and that will save you a lot of time for troubleshooting. All of these projects fall into the category of beginner, small or hobby and that’s why we used simple electronics for beginners as a title. And you can experiment all these circuits at your own free will and creativity.
Learning in your classroom course introduces you to get started in the making and development of your school projects. While you may select to use any of the project ideas, they perfectly should be used as springboards to guide you in building your own activities. We have kept them wide so that you can work out the details. Keep in mind that the following stem kits should be ongoing throughout the school year and these kits can be multi-disciplinary. Be aware that many of these projects may have overlapping focuses both on the truths they are investigating as well as in the assets that they use. In order to support, school students discover issues that are exact to themselves, one must first search the basic similarities and common needs of the electronics projects for school students. The study of the basic requirements is crucial.
The term TFET stands for tunneling field effect transistor, that has been developed in the year 1992 by T. Baba, as one of the capable changes to the conventional MOSFET’s based on numerous performance factors includes Possible for above the 60mV/decade, sub threshold swing, ultra-low power & ultra-low voltage, the effects of short channel, leakage current reduction, speed requirement exceeding due to the effects of tunneling, capability to work on sub-threshold and super-threshold voltage, similarity in the assembly process as equated with a MOSFET. Taking into attention the above factors, the MOSFET could be changed by a potential substitute in terms of tunneling field effect transistor for the purpose of high-speed, energy efficient , and ultra-low power applications in the area of integrated circuits.
Thermal imaging device is a benefit to the armed forces like navy, army and air force because of its 24 hours working capability to perform well in all climate conditions. Thermal detectors capture the IR(Infrared) radiation produced by all objects above complete zero temperature. The temperature differences of the captured section are denoted as a hectogram. With the beginning of IR detector technology, the large cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and difficult cryogenic temperatures have changed into small, and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts. Thermal imaging system due to its numerous advantages has various applications in the military and also defines.
It is widely used by the armed forces for border surveillance and law implementation. It is also used in ship accident avoidance and control systems. In the aviation industry, it seriously mitigates the dangers of flying in the night conditions. They are widely used in military flight to recognize, find and aim the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being merged in civil aviation for health checking of aircraft.
The Bluetooth technology was implemented in the year 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattison. They were working in a mobile company called “Ericsson” which is located in Sweden. After this, five corporations came forward and combined to form the Bluetooth special interest group. Then they implemented the Bluetooth protocol design version 1.0 in the year 1999. It permitted to progress applications and communicating services over the interoperable radio modules and also data communication protocols. It was intended to give the information on the conditions, competencies and their architectures, a number of usage modules were recognized by the Bluetooth SIG.
What is a Bluetooth Device?
A Bluetooth is a high-speed, low powered wireless device that is intended to connect mobile phones or any other movable equipment together. It is an IEEE 802.15.1 specification for the use of low-power radio communications to connect various network devices, namely computers, mobile phones and also other network devices over small distances without using wires. The transmission of wireless signals can be done typically up to 10meters with Bluetooth over small distances.
It is attained by low-cost embedded transceivers into the devices. It supports on the 2.45GHz frequency band and can support up to 721KBps along with 3-voice channels. This frequency band has been fixed aside by international contract for the use of scientific, industrial, medical devices (ISM) and rd-compatible with 1.0 devices.Simultaneously, Bluetooth device can connect up to eight devices and each device gives a unique 48-bit address from the IEEE 802 standard with the point to point connections or multipoint which are being made.
How to Connect a Bluetooth with Other Devices
The following steps involve to knowing how to connect a Bluetooth with other devices
Turn Bluetooth ON/OFF
- Open the device’s settings
- Tap Bluetooth and ON/OFF the switch
- At the top of the mobile screen, a Bluetooth symbol shows when Bluetooth is switched ON
Note: To conserve battery, switch off Bluetooth option when you’re not using it.
Connect Bluetooth Device
To pair with a Bluetooth device, first switch ON your gadget’s Bluetooth. Before you can pair your device with any other Bluetooth enabled gadget, you must connect them. After you have connected the devices, in the future, you can automatically connect the devices when they are in the range of one another.
Unpair, or Change a Bluetooth Device Name
- If your Bluetooth devices have several connections, you can choose which connection to use.
- Your Bluetooth enabled gadget has a Bluetooth name that new devices see when you pair them via Bluetooth. You can change your Bluetooth device’s name.
- Open your Bluetooth enabled gadgets Settings
- Tap Bluetooth and Make sure Bluetooth is turned on.
- Next, to the connected device, you’d like to change, tap Settings
- On the mobile screen that opens, you can change the name of the device and pick profiles, or forget the device.
- Tap Rename the Bluetooth enabled device
- Enter a new name for your device and Tap Rename.
Why Bluetooth Connecting Fail
Bluetooth device mainly depends on both software and hardware to function properly. So if your gadgets can’t speak a common Bluetooth language, they won’t be able to pair.
In general, these devices support the standard Bluetooth 4.2, declared last year, should still be able to connect with devices using, say, the early Bluetooth 2.1, launched back in the year 2007.
The exceptions are devices that use a low energy version named Bluetooth Smart, which works on a variety protocol than older. Bluetooth enabled devices are not backward compatible and won’t pair with older devices that support Classic Bluetooth.
Bluetooth enabled devices that commonly use Bluetooth Smart comprise personal health gadgets like heart rate monitors, fitness bands, etc. These devices will only connect with a smartphone that also uses Bluetooth Smart or Bluetooth Smart Ready.
The devices also available with particular Bluetooth profiles. If Bluetooth is the mutual language for connecting devices, you can think of a profile as a dialect connected with a certain use. For example, you probably aren’t going to be capable of connecting a camera and a mouse because a camera doesn’t support the Human Interface Device Profile. But if both a mobile and a wireless headset support the Hands-Free Profile, you should be able to connect them.
However, if the connecting failure is a matter of consumer error, there are some steps you can fix Bluetooth pairing problems
- Make sure Bluetooth is Activated or Not
- Switch to Discoverable Mode.
- Delete a paired device from a phone and search for it
- Make sure the pairing devices are in near enough closeness to one another.
- Decide which combining process your device employs
- Charge up both pairing devices
- Stay away from the WiFi router
- Update the firmware of the hardware
- Power down likely interferes
- Get away from a 3.0 USB port
Advantages of Bluetooth Technology
- It eliminates radio interference problem by using a technique, namely “Speed Frequency Hopping”. This method employs 79-channels of the specific frequency band, with every device, retrieving the channel for only 625 microseconds, i.e. the Bluetooth device must toggle between transmitting & receiving data from one time period to another. This indicates the transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second, meaning that additional devices can make full use of an incomplete slice of the radio spectrum. This ensures that the interference won’t take place as each transmitter (TX) will be on different frequencies.
- The power consumption of the chip (consisting of the transceiver) is low, at about 0.3mW, which makes it possible for least use of battery life.
It assurances security at the bit level. The verification is controlled using a 128bit key.
It is possible to use a Bluetooth device for both transferring and verbal communication as this device can support data channels of up to 3 comparable voice channels.
It disables the limits of the line of sight and one-to-one communication as in another mode of wireless communications such as infrared.
Applications of Bluetooth
The applications of Bluetooth device include the following
- Cordless Desktop
- Ultimate headset
- Automatic synchronization
- Multimedia Transfer
This article gives the information about how to connect a Bluetooth with other devices, and applications. We hope that the above information given in this article is helpful in providing some good insights and understanding of the project. Furthermore, if you have any queries regarding this article or to implement Bluetooth based projects, you can comment in the below section. Here is a question for you – What are the different versions of Bluetooth?
In this article, let us discuss the circuit for recharging the Lead Acid battery using the Solar panel. The concept of solar is not new for us. As day by day, non-renewable energy sources are reducing, and the usage of solar energy is improved. This energy is not only used on the Globe, but also used in space stations where no electrical power is accessible. Here is the simple circuit to charge a rechargeable Lead-acid battery (12V, 1.3Ah) from the solar panel. This solar charger has regulation of current, voltage and also has over-voltage cut off services. This circuit may also be used to charge the Lead-acid battery at constant voltage because o/p voltage is variable.
The transformer is a static device that changes electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit with the help of mutual induction (without any connection) between two windings namely primary winding and secondary winding. It changes power from one circuit to another circuit without altering its frequency, but may be on changing voltage level. This is the simple definition of transformer. This article discusses what is transformer, basic theory and why this only works with AC.
Generally, we all known about shift register, combinational circuits and the other important element in the digital electronics is a counter. The counter circuits are used for counting purposes, and it is also used for measuring the frequency and time. The counter circuits are designed especially for synchronous sequential circuits. The state of the counter is equal to the count held in the circuit by the flip flops. The counters will calculate the number that how many times an event occurred. The counters are the crucial hardware components and they are also known as timers and these are the best examples of the flip flops. These are also used to design programmable timers.
What is a Counter Circuit?
Generally, the counter circuits are constructed by using a number of flip-flops which are connected in cascade. The manufacturing of counter circuits is separate integrated circuits and it is inbuilt in the part of larger integrated circuits. The counter circuits are widely used in the digital circuits. There are different types of counter circuits like synchronous counters, asynchronous counters, decade counters, ring counters, and Johnson counters.
Pin Configuration of AVR Atmega8 Microcontroller
The AVR Atmega8 Microcontroller consists of 28 pins and all the pins of the microcontroller will support two signals except 5 pins. From the 28-pins of microcontroller the port B pins are 9,10,14,15,16,17,18,19, the port C pins are 23,24,25,26,27,28, &1, and the port D pins are 2,3,4,5,6,11,12. The following image shows the pin configuration of the AVR Atmega8 microcontroller and description of each pin is described below.
Pin-1: RESET pin. If we apply low-level signals for a longer time than the minimum pulse length will produce the RESET pin
Pin-2 & 3: A serial communication in the USART
Pin-4 & 5: An external interrupt. From these two pins, one of the pins is active when an interrupt flag bit of the status register is set and the other pin will be active as long as the intruder condition succeeds.
Pin-9 & 10: An external oscillator pins as well as timer counter oscillators. The crystal oscillator is associated with the two pins directly. The pin-10 is used for lower frequency crystal oscillators or the crystal oscillators.
Pin-19: Used for the SPI-channel as a Master CLK o/p, slave CLK i/p.
Pin-18: A CLK I/P, slave CLK O/P.
Pin-17: Used for the SPI-channel as a Master data o/p, slave data i/p. When it is allowed by the master, it is used as an i/p when it is improved by the slave & bidirectional. This pin can also be utilised as an o/p compare with match o/p, which helps as an external o/p for the timer/counter.
Pin-16: Used as a timer or counter1 comparatively by ranging the PB2-pin as an o/p. It is also used as a slave choice i/p.
Pin-15: Used as an external o/p of the timer or counter compare match A.
Pin-23 to 28 is used as an ADC channel. Pin-27 is used as a serial interface CLK and pin-28 is used as a serial interface data.
Pin-12 &13: Analog Comparator Inputs.
Pin-6 & 11: Timer/counter sources.
Frequency Counter Circuit By Using ATmega16
The following circuit shows frequency counter circuit using the ATmega16 microcontroller. This frequency meter or counter is used to measure the frequency up to 4MHz because we are using an 8MHz clock for the ATmega16 microcontroller. The working operation of this circuit is to count the number of pulses of a signal in one second is simply the frequency counter circuit.
To count the pulses of a signal, we are using the timer1 of the ATmega16 and it will measure the frequency by using the normal mode. When we are starting the count pulses it makes a delay of one second, then we stop the timer and read it in the register which contains the number of pulses. If the timer1 is made an overflow then we are enabling the overflow interrupt of timer1 then we are going to count the number of overflows which are which are made by the timer1. The overflow means the timer1 has made 2^16 count. Therefore, by using the following equation the number of pulses in one second can be calculated.
Frequency = i*2^16 + TCNT1
From the above equation
It is used to calculate the number of overflows in one second. Reading the frequency meter is updated for every second.
Digital Stop Watch Using Atmega8 Microcontroller
The following schematic diagram shows the digital stopwatch using an Atmega8 microcontroller. The operational principle of this circuit is, in the starting stage the stopwatch is in the STOP condition and it is identified by through the blinking display. Generally, the counting stats from 00:00, if we press the START button then the count starts. If the watch is in the running condition then the display will not blink and the display will be on.
It will start counting and the mini seconds are displayed. By pressing the halt key the digital stopwatch is stopped, in the halt state the counting freezes and the display starts blinking. By pressing again START key the digital stopwatch starts from the resume counting. The RESET key is used to reset the clock and the clock starts from 00:00 i.e. 0 minute and 0 Sec.
Applications of Counters
- The counters are used widely in the flip-flops.
- It is used in the cricket stadiums to count the number of people entering & leaving the stadium or room or auditorium.
- The operations of microwave ovens and washing machines are by using the counters
- The counters are used in the digital electronic devices like the digital clock, analogue to digital converts, and digital triangular wave generators.
The information in this article is about simple counter circuits AVR Atmega8 microcontroller. I hope by reading this article you have gained some basic information on the counter circuits. If you have any queries about this article or about the implementation of electrical and electronic projects, please feel free to comment in the below section. Here is the question for you, what is the function of the counter circuit?